한국농림기상학회지, 제 11권 제4호(2009) (pISSN 1229-5671, eISSN 2288-1859)
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 11, No. 4, (2009), pp. 233~246
DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2009.11.4.233
ⓒ Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

광릉 활엽수림과 침엽수림에서 에디공분산으로
관측한 하부 군락의 증발산

강민석(1), 권효정(1), 임종환(2), 김 준(1,3)
(1)연세대학교 대기과학과/지구환경연구소, (2)국립산립과학원 산림보전부,
(3)동경대학교 GCOE 지속가능한 도시재생센터/산업과학연구소

(2009년 12월 10일 접수; 2009년 12월 30일 수정; 2009년 12월 30일 수락)

Understory Evapotranspiration Measured by Eddy-Covariance
in Gwangneung Deciduous and Coniferous Forests

Minseok Kang(1), Hyojung Kwon(1), Jong-Hwan Lim(2), Joon Kim(1,3)
(1)Global Environment Laboratory & Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Korea
(2)Division of Forest Conservation, Korea Forest Research Institute, Seoul 130-712, Korea
(3)Global Center of Excellence for Sustainable Urban Regeneration & Institute of Industrial Science,
The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 Japan

(Received December 10, 2009; Revised December 30, 2009; Accepted December 30, 2009)

The partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) into evaporation (E) and transpiration (T) is critical in understanding the water cycle and the couplings between the cycles of energy, water, and carbon. In forests, the total ET measured above the canopy consists of T from both overstory and understory vegetation, and E from soil and the intercepted precipitation. To quantify their relative contributions, we have measured ET from the floors of deciduous and coniferous forests in Gwangneung using eddy covariance technique from 1 June 2008 to 31 May 2009. Due to smaller eddies that contribute to turbulent transfer near the ground, we performed a spectrum analysis and found that the errors associated with sensor separation were <10%. The annual sum of the understory ET was 59 mm (16% of total ET) in the deciduous forest and 43 mm (~7%) in the coniferous forest. Overall, the understory ET was not negligible except during the summer season when the plant area index was near its maximum. In both forest canopies, the decoupling factor (Ω) was about ~0.15, indicating that the understory ET was controlled mainly by vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture content. The differences in the understory ET between the two forest canopies were due to different environmental conditions within the canopies, particularly the contrasting air humidity and soil water content. The non-negligible understory ET in the Gwangneung forests suggests that the dual source or multi-level models are required for the interpretation and modeling of surface exchange of mass and energy in these forests.

Keyword: Evapotranspiration, Understory, Eddy-Covariance, Decoupling factor, Coniferous forest, Deciduous forest



증발산(ET)을 증발(E)과 증산(T)으로 배분하는 것은 물 순환과 에너지, 물 및 탄소 순환의 연결고리를 이해하는 데에 매우 중요하다. 산림 군락의 총 증발산은 상부 및 하부 군락의 증산과 토양 및 차단 강수로부터의 증발로 구성된다. 이들의 상대적 기여도를 정량화하기 위해, 에디 공분산 방법을 사용하여 2008년 6월 1일부터 2009년 5월 31일까지 광릉 활엽수림과 침엽수림의 마루에서의 증발산을 관측하였다. 스펙트럼 분석에 따르면, 초음파 풍향 풍속계와 수증기 농도측정기 사이의 거리에 의한 증발산 과소 평가는 군락하부에서 연간 증발산량의 약 10%정도였다. 하부군락의 연간 증발산은 활엽수림과 침엽수림에서 각각 59mm와 43mm로, 총 증발산량의 16%와 7%를 차지하였다. 전반적으로 식생면적지수가 최대인 여름 기간을 제외하고는 하부군락의 증발산은 총 증발산에서 무시할 수 없는 부분을 차지하였다. 두 산림지역의 비결합 모수(Ω)는 약 0.15이었으며, 이는 하부군락의 증발산이 주로 포차나 토양 수분에 의해서 조절됨을 보여준다. 두 산림의 하부 군락의 증발산의 차이는 군락하부의 환경 조건의 차이에 기인하며, 특히 습도와 토양 수분의 차이로 인해 발생하였다. 광릉 하부 군락의 증발산 기여도가 작지 않다는 사실은 이러한 산림의 물질과 에너지 플럭스를 해석하고 모델링하기 위해서는 이원 또는 다층 모형이 필요함을 시사한다.


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