한국농림기상학회지, 제 12권 제4호(2010) (pISSN 1229-5671, eISSN 2288-1859)
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 12, No. 4, (2010), pp. 289~297
DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2010.12.4.289
ⓒ Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


설마천유역 혼효림에서 실측된 증발산과 토양수분을
이용한 SWAT모형의 적용성 평가

조형경, 이지완, 신형진, 박근애, 김성준
건국대학교 사회환경시스템공학과/지구정보공학연구실

(2010년 08월 30일 접수; 2010년 09월 27일 수정; 2010년 10월 20일 수락)

Evaluation of Evapotranspiration and Soil Moisture of SWAT
Simulation for Mixed Forest in the Seolmacheon Catchment

Hyung Kyung Joh, Ji wan Lee, Hyung Jin Shin, Geun Ae Park and Seong Joon Kim
Department of Civil and Environmental System Engineering/Earth Information Engineering Laboratory,
Konkuk University, Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701, Korea

(Received August 30, 2010; Revised September 27, 2010; Accepted October 20, 2010)

ABSTRACT
Common practice of Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model validation is to use a single variable (i.e., streamlfow) to calibrate SWAT model due to the paucity of actual hydrological measurement data in Korea. This approach, however, often causes errors in the simulated results because of numerous sources of uncertainty and complexity of SWAT model. We employed multi-variables (i.e., streamflow, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture), which were measured at mixed forest in Seolmacheon catchment (8.54 km2), in order to assess the performance and reduce the uncertainties of SWAT model output. Meteorological and surface topographical data of the catchment were obtained as basic input variables and SWAT model was calibrated using daily data of streamflow (Jan. – Dec.), evapotranspiration (Sep. – Dec.), and soil moisture (Jun. – Dec.) collected in 2007. The model performance was assessed by comparing its results with the observation (i.e., streamflow of 2003 to 2008 and evapotranspiration and soil moisture of 2008). When the multi-variable measurements were used to calibrate the SWAT model, the model results showed better agreement with the measurements compared to those using a single variable measurement by showing increases in coefficient of determination (R2) from 0.72 to 0.76 for streamflow, from 0.49 to 0.59 for soil moisture, and from 0.52 to 0.59 for evapotranspiration. The findings highlight the importance of reliable and accurate collective observation data for improving performance of SWAT model and promote its facilitation for estimating more realistic hydrological cycles at catchment scale.

Keyword: Evapotranspiration, SWAT, Uncertainty, Evaluation

MAIN

적요

국내 수문관측자료의 부족으로SWAT(Soil Water Assessment Tool) 모형의 적용성 평가는 대부분 유출자료만을 사용하여 이루어진다. 본 연구는 실측된 여러 수문자료가 SWAT수문모형의 불확실성 및 오차의 감소를 위해 어떻게 이용될 수 있는 지에 대하여 알아보고자 하였다. 이를 위해 전형적인 산지 유역인 설마천 유역을 대상으로 준분포형 장기강우유출모형인 SWAT 모형을 적용하여 수문성분의 특성을 살펴보았다. 먼저 모형의 입력자료인 기상자료 및 지형자료를 획득하여 구축하였고, 모형의 검·보정 위하여 유출, 증발산, 토양수분 실측자료를 획득하였다. SWAT 모형은 유츨량, 증발산, 토양수분 자료가 동시에 측정된 2007년 자료를 사용하여 보정된 후, SWAT 모형의 모의값은 유출량은 2003~2008년, 증발산과 토양수분은 2008년의 관측값과 비교, 분석한 뒤 전체적인 검증을 통해 모형의 적용성 평가를 실시하였다. 유출량의 검·보정 이용한 모의결과보다 다른 실측자료를 이용한 모의결과가 신뢰성이 높게 나타났다(결정계수(R2) 상향: 유출량은 0.72에서 0.76, 토양수분은 0.49에서 0.59, 증발산은 0.52에서 0.59). 유역의 실제적인 상황을 근접하게 모의하기 위해서는 다른 수문성분의 정확하고 신뢰성 있는 자료의 구축과 적용이 매우 중요하다고 판단된다.

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