한국농림기상학회지, 제 12권 제2호(2010) (pISSN 1229-5671, eISSN 2288-1859)
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 12, No. 2, (2010), pp. 143~151
DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2010.12.2.143
ⓒ Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


기후변화에 대한 강원지역 벼 재배의 적응

서영호(1), 이안수(1), 조병욱(1), 강안석(1), 정병찬(1), 정영상(2)
(1)강원도농업기술원, (2)강원대학교

(2010년 06월 14일 접수; 2010년 06월 26일 수정; 2010년 06월 28일 수락)

Adaptation Study of Rice Cultivation in Gangwon Province
to Climate Change

Youngho Seo(1), Ansoo Lee(1), Byoungouk Cho(1), Anseok Kang(1),
Byeongchan Jeong(1), Yeongsang Jung(2)
(1)Gangwon Agricultural Research & Extension Services, Udu-dong 402, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-150, Korea
(2)Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701, Korea

(Received June 14, 2010; Revised June 26, 2010; Accepted June 28, 2010)

ABSTRACT
The impact of climate change on rice plants in Gangwon province was examined by comparing the climatic conditions during the recent 10 years (2000~2009) with those of normal (1971~2000) years, and by evaluating the rice plant responses. The daily mean air temperature increased by 0.5oC while the daily range decreased by 0.1oC as compared with the normal years. During the main rice growing period in field (from June to September) precipitation increased from 900 to 1,051mm and sunshine hours decreased from 704 to 619 hours. The respiration consumption effect during the rice growing period increased by 0.07 as a result of increased air temperature and reduced sunshine hours. The optimum heading date (determined by the mean air temperature for 40 days after the heading) was delayed in Chuncheon, Hongcheon, Wonju, and Gangneung compared with the normal. The maximum climatic yield potential based on mean temperature and sunshine hours for 40 days after the rice heading decreased by 94 kg/10a mainly due to the decrease in sunshine. The mean air temperature for 40 days after the rice heading from 1999 to 2009 in Chuncheon, Cheorwon, and Gangneung was generally above 22oC implying that yield and quality of rice can be reduced. Therefore, it is necessary to delay the heading date by planting mid- to late-maturing varieties or by changing the transplanting date in order to produce high quality rice and to maintain rice productivity. In addition, it is also important to develop or select cultivars suitable to changing climate for each region in Gangwon province.

Keyword: Climate change, Rice, Gangwon province, Heading date

MAIN

적요

강원 지역에서의 최근 10년간(2000~2009)의 기상환경을 평년(1971~2000)과 비교하여 벼 재배의 기상환경 변화 추이를 살펴보고, 고품질 쌀의 안정 생산을 위한 대책을 수립하기 위한 기초 자료를 제공하고자 하였다. 평년에 비해 기온이 0.5oC 올라가고, 일교차는 0.1oC 줄었으며, 강수량은 122mm 많아졌고, 일조시수는 151시간 줄었다. 벼가 본답에서 주로 생육하는 6월부터 9월까지는 연중 기후 변화에 비해 강수량 증가(151mm)와 일조 시간 감소(86시간) 경향이 뚜렷하였는데, 원주 등 남부내륙권에서 가장 큰 폭의 변화를 보였다. 호흡소모계수는 평년에 비해 0.07 높아졌는데, 특히 생식생장기인 7월에 0.13으로 증가폭이 가장 컸다. 이는 고온에서 호흡이 증가하고 일조시간 부족으로 건물 생산량이 낮아질 수 있음을 보여준다. 고품질 벼생산을 위한 등숙 온도인 20~22oC를 기준으로 산출한 알맞은 출수기는 평년에 비해 춘천, 홍천, 원주, 강릉은 늦어졌으나, 철원은 앞당겨졌다. 알맞은 출수기 후 40일간의 일조시수는 평년에 비해 34시간 줄어 유백미와 사미가 많아질 염려가 있다. 최대 기후등숙량은 원주에서 가장 많이 줄어든 반면, 태백 등 고랭지에서는 등숙 온도 상승으로 높아졌다. 춘천, 철원, 강릉에서의 최근 11년간(1999~2009) 등숙 온도는 대체로 22oC 이상이었다. 향후 기후 전망에 의하면 출수기는 빨라지고 등숙 온도는 올라갈 수 있으므로, 중생종이나 중만생종을 재배하거나, 이앙 시기의 조절이나 직파 재배와 같은 재배 관리를 달리하여 출수기를 늦추면 쌀 수량과 품질의 저하를 막을 수 있을 것으로 보인다. 나아가 등숙 기간의 기온 상승과 일조량 감소, 강수량 증가 등의 변화된 기상 여건에 잘 적응하는 품종을 육성하거나 선발하여 보급 재배함으로써 고품질 쌀의 안정 생산을 이루어야 할 것이다.

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