한국농림기상학회지, 제 12권 제2호(2010) (pISSN 1229-5671, eISSN 2288-1859)
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 12, No. 2, (2010), pp. 95~106
DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2010.12.2.095
ⓒ Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


광릉 활엽수림에서 Community Land Model 3.5-Dynamic Global
Vegetation Model의 평가

임희정(1), 이영희(1), 권효정(2,3)
(1)경북대학교 천문대기과학과, (2)연세대학교 대기과학과/지구환경연구소, (3)서울대학교 국가농림기상센터

(2010년 03월 09일 접수; 2010년 06월 08일 수정; 2010년 06월 24일 수락)

Evaluation of Community Land Model version 3.5-Dynamic Global
Vegetation Model over Deciduous Forest in Gwangneung, Korea

Hee-Jeong Lim(1), Young-Hee Lee(1), Hyojung Kwon(2,3)
(1)Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University,
Sankyuk-dong 1370, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701, Korea
(2)Department of Atmospheric Sciences/Global Environmental Laboratory, Yonsei University,
Shinchon-dong 134, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749, Korea
(3)National Center for Agro-Meteorology, Lollege of Agriculture and Lifesciences,
Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742, Korea

(Received March 09, 2010; Revised June 08, 2010; Accepted June 24, 2010)

ABSTRACT
The performance of Community Land Model version 3.5 – Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM) was evaluated through a comparison with the observation over temperate deciduous forest in Gwangneung, Korea. Influence of plant phenology, composition of plant functional type, and climate variability on carbon exchanges was also examined through sensitivity test. To get equilibrium carbon storage, the model was run for 400 years driven by the observed atmospheric data at the deciduous forest of the year 2006. We run the model for 2006 with the equilibrium carbon storage at Gwangneung forest and compared the model output with the observation. A comparison of leaf area index (LAI) between the model and observation indicated that the simulated phenology poorly represented the timing of budburst, leaf-fall, and evolution of LAI. Senescence of the phenology was delayed about four weeks and the simulated maximum LAI (of 5.8 m2m-2 ) was greater than the observed value (of 4.5 m2m-2). The overestimated LAI contributed to overestimation of both gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration Re through increased photosynthesis and foliar autotropic respiration Ra, respectively. Despite the discrepancy between the simulated and observed LAI, the simulated tree carbon storage amounts were comparable with the reported values at the site. Change in plant phenology from the simulated to the observed reduced more than six weeks of the plant growth period, resulting in the decreased amount of GPP and Re. These values, however, were still higher (~10% of GPP and 40% of Re) than the observed values. The effect of change in plant functional type composition (from dominant temperate deciduous forest to the coexistence of temperate deciduous and needle leaf forests) on the estimated amount of GPP and Re was marginal. The influence of climate variability on carbon storage amounts was not significant. The simulated inter-annual variation of GPP and Re from 1994 to 2003 depended on annual mean air temperature and total radiation but not on precipitation. Other deficiencies of CLM3.5-DGVM have been discussed.

Keyword: Carbon budget, CLM3.5-DGVM, Plant phenology, Sensitivity test

MAIN

적요

본 연구에서는 광릉의 활엽수림에서 관측된 생태자료들을 이용하여 CLM3.5-DGVM(Community Land Model 3.5-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model)의 탄소교환과정에 대한 모의능력을 평가하고 탄소수지를 계산하였다. 또한 식생 종의 구성과 식물계절학, 그리고 기후 변동성이 탄소수지에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위하여 민감도 실험을 수행하였다. 모델의 식물계절학은 잎의 출현과 낙하의 시기를 잘 모의하지 못하였으며, 특히 낙엽은 관측보다 한달 이상 지연되어 생장기간을 과대모의 하였다. 모의된 최대 엽면적지수(leaf alea index, LAI)는 5.8이며 관측값(4.5)에 비해 과대모의 되었다. 과대 모의된 LAI는 광합성량과 잎의 자가영양호홉의 과대모의를 야기하였으며, 이를 통해 연간 총 일차 생산량(gross primary producing, GPP)과 생태 호흡량(ecosystem Respiration, Re)의 과대모의에 기여하였다. 관측과 모델간의 LAI의 차이에도 불구하고 모의된 식생 탄소 저장항의 크기는 관측 보고된 값과 유사하였다. 모델의 식물계절학함수를 사용하는 대신 관측된 PAI로부터 유도된 식물계절학을 사용하면 생육 기간이 감소함에 따라 GPP와 Re의 과대 모의는 완화되었다. 하지만 관측 보고된 값과 비교할 때 여전히 큰 값을 보였다. 모의된 탄소수지는 식생 종의 구성에는 유의한 민감도를 가지지 않았다. 모델입력자료에 기후변동성의 고려 유무에 따른 평형상태의 탄소저장량의 차이는 10%이하로 낮았으며 기후변동성이 평형상태의 탄소저장량에 미치는 영향은 유의할 수준이 아니라고 사료된다. 모델에서 모의된 GPP와 Re의 1994년부터 2003년간의 연간 변동성은 연 평균 대기온도와 일사량에 의존하였다. 모델의 다른 문제점들에 관해서도 본문에서 논의되었다.

REFERENCES

Bonan, G. B., S. Levis, S. Sitch, M. Vertenstein, and K.W. Oleson, 2003: A dynamic global vegetation model for use with climate models: concepts and description of simulated vegetation dynamics. Global Change Biology 9, 1543-1566.crossref(new window)

Collatz, G. J., J. T. Ball, C. Grivet, and J. A. Berry, 1991: Physiological and environmental regulation of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and transpiration: A model that includes a laminar boundary layer. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 54, 107-136.crossref(new window)

Farquhar, G. D., S. von Caemmerer, and J. A. Berry, 1980: A biochemical model of photosynthetic $CO_2$ assimilation in leaves of $C_3$ species. Planta 149, 78-90.crossref(new window)

Ito, A., I. Motoko, M. Wenhon, L. Misun, K. Hiroshi, S. Nobuko, M. Shohei, and Y. Susumu, 2007: Examination of model-estimated ecosystem respiration using flux measurements from a cool-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in central Japan. Tellus 59B, 616-624.

Kang, J. H., M. S. Suh, C. H. Kwak, and Y. S. Lee, 2005: Classification of Land Cover over the Korean Peninsula using MODIS Data. Proceedings of the Autumn Meeting of Korean Meteorological Society, Korean Meteorological Society, Seoul, 400-401.

Kwon, H., J. Kim, J. Hong, and J.H. Lim 2010: Influence of the Asian Monsoon on Interannual Variability of Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in Two Major Plant Functional Types in Korea. Biogeosciences 7, 1493-1504.crossref(new window)

Lee D. H., J. Kim, S. Kim, S. Moon, J. Lee, J. Lim, Y. Son, S. Kang, S. Kim, K. Kim, N. Woo,B. Lee, and S. Kim, 2007: Lessons from Cross-Scale Studies of Water and Carbon Cycles in the Gwangneung Forest Catchment in a Complex Landscape of Monsoon Korea. Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 9(2), 149-160.

Lee, Y. H. and H. Lim, 2009: Evaluation of Modified Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Model (mSPA) to Simulate Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange Over a Deciduous Forest at Gwangneung in 2006. Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 11(3), 87-99.

Levis, S., G. B. Bonan, M. Vertenstein, and K. W. Oleson, 2004: The Community Land Model’s Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM): Technical description and user’s guide. Technical Note NCAR/TN-459+IA, 50pp.

Lim, J. H., J. H. Shin, G. Z. Jin, J. H. Chun, and J. S. Oh, 2003: Forest stand structure, site characteristics and carbon budget of the Kwangneung Natural Forest in Korea. Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 5(2), 101-109.

Min, Y., S. Suh, J. Lee, and J. Lee, 2006: The soil carbon budget in Gwangneung cool-temperate deciduous forest. Proceedings of the 61th Annual Meeting of Korean Association of Biological Sciences, 206P.

Oleson, K. W., G. Y. Niu, Z. L. Yang, D. M. Lawrence, P. E. Thornton, P. J. Lawrence, R. Stockli, R. E. Dickinson, G. B. Bonan, and S. Levis, 2007: CLM3.5 Documentation, 31pp.

Oleson, K., Y. Dai, G. Bonan, M. Bosilovich, R. Dickinson, P. Dirmeyer, F. Hoffman, P. Houser, S. Levis, G. Y. Niu, P. Thornton, M. Vertenstein, Z. L. Yang, and X. Zeng, 2004: Technical Description of the Community Land Model (CLM). Technical Note NCAR/TN-461+STR, 173pp.

Park, S. B., M. S. Kang, J. S. Kim, J. H. Lim, J. H. Chon, S. H. Park, Y. I. Kim, T. H. Hwang, N. Chae, T. J. Choi, S. K. Kang, S. K. Moon, and J. Kim, 2006: The comparison between measured LAI and MODIS LAI in Gwangneung forest watershed. Proceedings of the autumn meeting of Korean Meteorological Society, Korean Meteorological Society, Ilsan, 318-319.

Prentice, I. C., W. Cramer, S. P. Harrison, R. Leemans, R. A. Monserud, and A. M. Solomon, 1992: A global biome model based on plant physiology and dominance, soil properties and climate. Journal of Biogeography 19, 117-134.crossref(new window)

Sitch, S., B. Smith, I. C. Prentice, A. Arneth, A, Bondeau, W, Cramer, J. Kaplan, S. Levis, W. Lucht, M. Sykes, M. Thonicke, and S. Venevsky, 2003: Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, Plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model. Global Change Biology 9, 161-185.crossref(new window)

Suh, M. S., J. R. Lee, J. H. Kang, D. K. Lee, and M. H. Ahn, 2005a: On the Relationship Between Seasonal Change of Vegetation and Climate Elements in East Asia. Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 41(4), 557-570. (in Korean with English)

Suh, S. U., Y. K. Min, and J. S. Lee, 2005b: Seasonal Variation of Contribution of Leaf-Litter Decomposition Rate in Soil Respiration in Temperate Deciduous Forest. Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 7(1), 57-66.