한국농림기상학회지, 제 13권 제4호(2011) (pISSN 1229-5671, eISSN 2288-1859)
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 13, No. 4, (2011), pp. 157~164
DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2010.13.4.157
ⓒ Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


침엽수인공림에서 임분 성장 및 간벌이 장기 물수지에 미치는 영향

국립산림과학원 산림보전부

(2011년 11월 25일 접수; 2011년 12월 14일 수정; 2011년 12월 14일 수락)

Effect of Forest Growth and Thinning on the Long-term
Water Balance in a Coniferous Forest

Department of Forest Conservation, Korea Forest Research Institute, Heogiro 57,
Dondaemungu, Seoul 130-712, Korea

(Received November 25, 2011; Revised December 14, 2011; Accepted December 14, 2011)

ABSTRACT
Long-term annual water balances are analyzed for two forest catchments located in Gwangneung covered with forests of different types and ages. The water balance trends of the two catchments from 1982 to 2009 are compared to identify the effect of forest growth and thinning on the water balance in a planted coniferous forest catchment. According to the averaged annual precipitation and runoff for the four designated periods from 1982 to 2009, the water balance of the old natural broad-leaved forest catchment (GB) remained relatively unchanged. In contrast, the young planted coniferous forest catchment (GC) showed significant changes in the water balance due to the forest growing and thinning. The results showed that the catchment runoff decreases with increasing tree age whereas the forest thinning results in an increase in catchment runoff. The mean annual runoff from the catchment GC after thinning increased by 1.7 times, compared with the mean annual runoff before forest thinning. The mean annual runoff from the catchment GB was very stable throughout the period. However, such an effect of forest thinning appeared to last only for about 10 year-period, after which the water yield increment in the catchment GC disappeared. It indicates that the proper forest management should be reconsidered at the interval of 10 years to effectively reduce water loss and increase water yield in the planted coniferous forest.

Keyword: Young planted coniferous forest, Old natural broad-leaved forest, Long-term water balance, Forest thinning

MAIN

적요

침엽수인공림에서 임분 성장 및 간벌이 장기 물수지에 미치는 영향을 파악하기 위하여 광릉 침엽수인공림 유역 및 활엽수천연림유역에서 1982년부터 2009년까지 28년에 걸쳐 관측한 연강수량 및 연유출량의 변화를 분석하였다. 광릉 침엽수인공림유역은 1976년에 유역 전반에 걸쳐 잣나무와 전나무, 리기다소나무가 3,000본/ha의 밀도로 식재되었으며, 1996년에 잔존 본수의 약 45%를 간벌하였다. 1982년부터 2009년까지의 기간을 광릉 침엽수인공림유역 내 침엽수림의 영급을 기준으로 4개 기간으로 구분하여 연평균 강수량 및 유출량을 비교한 결과, 활엽수천연림유역의 기간별 연 평균 유출량은 강수량이 증가함에 따라 동일하게 증가하는 추세를 보였으나, 침엽수인공림유역에서는 임령증가 및 간벌 실시에 따라 증감을 반복하는 것으로 나타났다. 간벌을 실시하지 않은 침엽수인공림은 임령이 증가할수록 높은 식재밀도로 인해 수관울폐도가 과도하게 높아지고 이로 인해 수관차단 및 증산량 증가 등 물손실이 커진다. 본 연구에서도 간벌 실시전 침엽수인공림유역의 연평균 유출량이 감소하였으나 간벌 실시 후에는 간벌 전에 비해 연평균 유출량이 약 1.7배 증가하는 등 유출량 증가 경향이 뚜렷하였다. 이러한 경향은 연강수량 및 연유출량의 이중 누가곡선 비교분석에서도 동일하게 나타났다. 본 연구에서는 간벌 후 약 10년 경과시 연강수량의 뚜렷한 증가 경향에도 불구하고 침엽수인공림유역의 유출량이 다시 감소하였는데, 이는 임분이 성장함에 따라 수관차단 등 물손실량이 다시 증가하기 때문이다. 따라서, 침엽수인공림유역에서 지속적인 수자원 확보를 위해서는 10년 이내의 간격으로 적정한 밀도의 간벌을 반복해서 실시하는 것이 바람직할 것으로 판단된다.

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