한국농림기상학회지, 제 14권 제4호(2012) (pISSN 1229-5671, eISSN 2288-1859)
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 14, No. 4, (2012), pp. 246~253
DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2012.14.4.246
ⓒ Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


2011년 남부지방 차나무 저온 피해 조사

황정규, 김용덕
하동녹차연구소

(2012년 09월 24일 접수; 2012년 12월 07일 수정; 2012년 12월 07일 수락)

A Survey Low Temperature Damage of Tea Tree
at South Korea in 2011

Jung-Gyu Hwang, Yong-Duck Kim
Institute of Hadong Green Tea, Seomjingangdae-ro3748-14, Hwagae-myeon, Hadong-gun,
Gyeongsangnam-do 667-804, Korea

(Received September 24, 2012; Revised December 07, 2012; Accepted December 07, 2012)

ABSTRACT
Despite frequent freezing injury to tea trees due low temperature, drought, and strong wind during wintertime, no comprehensive measurements have been taken. We selected and examined 9 locations in Hwagae-myeon and 4 places in Agyang-myeon, Hadong-gun, Gyeonsanggnam-do where low temperature damage had occurred between December 2010 and February 2011. Our objective is to examine the effect of frost damage on the morphological symptom and harvest of a tea tree exposed to a constant low temperature environment during wintertime. The results of our analyses on meteorological environment, tea leaf chromaticity, water content and trypan blue are as follows: (1) the number of days with temperature of -10oC or less, which were subject to frost damage to a tea tree were 8 and 13.6% during the winterization period in 2011; (2) the accumulated time was 1,308 minutes, and the longest duration at -10oC was 588 minutes from 21:08 p.m. 15 January to 7:30 a.m. 16th January. The rainfall was only 104 mm which was 306 mm less than the previous year; (3) the lightness L values in 2011 were higher than in 2012 due to dehydration and necrosis by blue discoloration and red discoloration at all areas in chromaticity measurement; (4) the water content in a tea leaf in 2011 was higher than in 2012 due to low rainfall and strong wind, and almost no cell death phenomenon was observed from normal tea leaves subject to no low temperature stress in a trypan blue analysis; and (5) partial coloration due to cell death, however, took place in the leaves damaged by blue discoloration subject to low temperature stress, and most coloration due to cell death took place in the leaves damaged by red discoloration.

Keyword: Freezing injury, Green tea, Low temperature, Discoloration

MAIN

적요

수분부족과 지속적인 저온현상으로 우리나라 주요차 생산 지역에 막대한 피해를 입혔는데, 이번 동해는 체내 수분부족으로 잎이 건조되어 퇴색된 녹색을 띄다가 고사하는 청고현상이 먼저 발견되었고, 대부분의 차(茶)재배지역에 피해를 입혔다. 이기간 동안 평균기온은 0.2oC로 전년대비 -2.7oC 낮았고 2011년 01월 과 02월의 최저기온의 평균기온은 -5.6oC로 전년대비 -4.5oC 낮았으며, 가장 낮은 기온이 관측된 날은 01월 18일 06시 55분으로 -11.8oC로 관측되었으며 전년 최저기온 보다 -5.5oC 낮게 관측되었다. 2010년 12월부터 2011년 02월까지 월동기간 동안 강우량은 104mm밖에 되지 않아 전년보다 306mm 적게 내렸다. 색도 측정에서는 모든 지역에서 2012년에 비해 2011년도에서 L, a, b값 모두 높게 나왔고 수분함량 또한 2012년보다 2011년 잎의 수분함량이 낮게 나타났으며, Trypan blue분석에서는 저온 스트레스를 받지 않는 정상 차나무 잎에서는 세포사멸 현상이 거의 관찰되지 않았으나 저온 스트레스를 받은 청고피해 잎은 부분 세포사멸이 되어 부분 염색이 일어났으며, 적고피해 잎에서는 대부분 세포사멸이 일어나 대부분 염색이 되는 것을 확인할 수 있었다.

REFERENCES

Bread, J. B., 2002: Turf management for golf courses. Ann Arbor Press. Chelsea, MI, 450pp.

Davis, M. B., M. Macarthur, and D. Williams, 1955: Freezing effects on apple wood. Progress Report. Horticultural Division, Experimental Farm Service, Canada, 1949-53, 1955, pp. 131-134.

Kim, J. T., 1995: Science and culture of tea. Borim publishing company., 78-82pp.

Koske, R. E., and J. N. Gemma, 1989: A modified procedure for staining roots to detect VA mycorrhizas. Mycological Research 92, 486-505.crossref(new window)

Lee, Y. H., 2004: Create a profitable good tea garden. Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research & Extension Services Right Reserved, 125-136pp.

Shin, K. C., J. S. Choi, S. B. Kim, J. Y. Moon, and J. H. Kim, 1986: Influence of low temperature and its duration on cold injury of deciduous fruit tree. Research Report of RDA (Horticulture), 28(1), 48-52.

Winkler, A. J., J. A. Cook, W. M. Kliewer, and L. A. Lider, 1974: General viticulture, University of california press., 36-106pp.