한국농림기상학회지, 제 15권 제4호(2013) (pISSN 1229-5671, eISSN 2288-1859)
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 15, No. 4, (2013), pp. 245~263
DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2013.15.4.245
ⓒ Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


CO2 및 기온 상승이 ‘후지’/M.9 사과나무의 광합성,
신초생장 및 과실품질에 미치는 영향

권헌중(1), 사공동훈(1), 박무용(1), 송양익(1), 정경호(1), 남종철(2), 한점화(2), 도경란(2)
(1)농촌진흥청 국립원예특작과학원 사과시험장,
(2)농촌진흥청 국립원예특작과학원 과수과

(2013년 09월 03일 접수; 2013년 11월 19일 수정; 2013년 12월 17일 수락)

Influence of Elevated CO2 and Air Temperature on Photosynthesis,
Shoot Growth, and Fruit Quality of ‘Fuji’/M.9 Apple Tree

Hun-Joong Kweon(1), Dong-Hoon Sagong(1), Moo-Yong Park(1), Yang-Yik Song(1),
Kyeong-Ho Chung(1), Jong-Chul Nam(2), Jeom-Hwa Han(2), Gyung-Ran Do(2)
(1)Apple Research Station, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, R.D.A., Gunwi 716-812, Korea
(2)Fruit Research Division, National Institute of Horticulture & Herbal Science,
Rural Development Administration, Suwon 440-706, Korea

(Received September 03, 2013; Revised November 19, 2013; Accepted December 17, 2013)

ABSTRACT
This study was conducted to find out the influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and air temperature on photosynthesis and fruit quality of ‘Fuji’/M.9 apple trees and to investigate these to the effects of climate change during the last four years (2009-2012). The treatments employed were: ‘Ambient’ (ambient temperature + ambient CO2 concentration); ‘High CO2‘ (ambient temperature + elevated CO2 concentration); ‘High Temp’. (elevated temperature + ambient CO2 concentration); and ‘High CO2 + High Temp’. (elevated temperature + elevated CO2 concentration). The elevated temperature plots were maintained at 4oC higher than ambient air temperature, while the elevated CO2 plots were maintained at 700 μmol·mol-1. Annual treatment period was applied from end of April to beginning of November for four years. Results showed that elevated CO2 decreased stomatal conductance and leaf SPAD value, but increased photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and starch content of mesophyll tissue. In the vegetative growth, elevated temperature increased total number of shoot and total shoot growth per tree, but elevated CO2 decreased average shoot length. In the fruit quality, elevated CO2 increased soluble solid content, fruit red color, and ethylene production. In conclusion, elevated CO2 increased photosynthetic rate of apples during the early growth, but effect of increased photosynthetic rate due to elevated CO2 was decreased during latter growth stage. Elevated temperature, on the other hand, tended to decrease photosynthetic rate of apples during the early growth, but that tended to increase during latter growth stage. Both elevated CO2 and temperature tended to decrease the degree of decreased photosynthetic rate due to each factor.

Keyword: fruit red color, intercellular CO2, concentration, Malus domestica Borkh., starch content of mesophyll tissue, stomatal conductance

MAIN

적요

본 시험은 기후변화의 영향과 관련하여 기온 및 CO2 농도 상승이 ‘후지’/M.9 사과나무의 광합성 및 과실품질에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 지난 4년(2009-2012)동안 시험이 이루어졌다. 처리구들은 ‘Ambient’(대기온도+대기 CO2 농도), ‘High CO2’(대기온도+상승 CO2 농도), ‘High Temp.’(상승온도+대기 CO2 농도), ‘High CO2+High Temp.’(상승온도+상승 CO2 농도)이었다. 상승온도 처리구들은 대기온도보다 4oC 상승시켰고, 상승 CO2 농도 처리구들은 700μmol·mol−1로 유지하였다. 4년 동안 매년 처리기간은 4월말부터 11월초까지였다. CO2 상승은 기공전도도와 잎의 엽록체 함량(SPAD 계량기 값)을 감소시켰으나, 광합성속도, 세포 내 CO2 농도(Ci) 및 잎의 전분함량은 증가시켰다. 수체생장에 있어, 기온 상승은 나무당 총 신초수와 총 신초생장량을 증가시켰으나, CO2 상승은 평균 신초장을 감소시켰다. 과실품질에 있어, CO2 상승은 착색, 가용성 고형물 함량, 및 에틸렌 발생량을 증진시켰다. 결론적으로, CO2 농도가 상승되면 생육초기에 사과나무의 광합성속도가 증가되었으나 생육후기에는 CO2 상승에 따른 광합성속도 증진 효과가 감소되었다. 반면에 기온 상승은 생육초기 광합성속도를 감소시켰으나 생육후기에 광합성속도를 증진시키는 경향이 있었다. CO2와 기온의 동시 상승은 각 요인에 의한 광합성 감소 정도가 줄어드는 경향이 있었다.

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