한국농림기상학회지, 제 15권 제4호(2013) (pISSN 1229-5671, eISSN 2288-1859)
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 15, No. 4, (2013), pp. 210~218
DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2013.15.4.210
ⓒ Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


새만금 방조제에서 곰솔의 초기 생장에 미치는 방풍 시설 설치 효과

김정환(1), 임주훈(1), 서경원(2), 정용호(1), 엄태원(3)
(1)국립산림과학원 산림수토보전과, (2)국립산림과학원 산림생산기술연구소,
(3)상지대학교 산림과학과

(2013년 08월 30일 접수; 2013년 10월 01일 수정; 2013년 11월 10일 수락)

Effect of Wind Break on the Early Growth of
Pinus thunbergii at Saemangum Sea-wall

Jeong-Hwan Kim(1), Joo-Hoon Lim(1), Kyung-Won Seo(2), Yong Ho Jeong(1), Tae-Won Um(3)
(1)Division of Forest Soil and Water Conservation, Korea Forest Research Institute
(2)Forest Practice Research Center, Korea Forest Research Institute
(3)Department of Forest Science, Sangji University

(Received August 30, 2013; Revised October 01, 2013; Accepted November 10, 2013)

ABSTRACT
The sea breeze shows different characteristics compared to land breeze, such as high wind speed and more rapider shift period. One of the major factors affecting plant early growth is wind speed. In the early growth stage, tree growth-rates rise with decreasing wind speed. Thus, the study was performed to identify wind break effects on wind characteristics and tree growth. The wind break used in this study was about 130 meters length and 3 meters height, made up with poly-ethylene (with 40% openness). We installed one vane and fifteen anemographs at three different heights (1, 2 and 3 meters) on the inner and outer wind break areas. The wind characteristic and plant growth data were collected from Jun. 2011 to Oct. over 2012. The wind rose of the Saemangum seawall area presented the north (21.5%) and it was followed by north-west (18.1%), east (14.9%) and north-east (13.7%) and the remainder with other directions. Wind speeds at height were different. The tree height was 159.6 cm at inside and 129.6 cm at outside. The diameter at root-collar was 36.9 mm at inside and 32.6 mm at outside from wind break.

Keyword: Sea breeze, Wind rose, Wind speed decrease, Pinus thunbergii

MAIN

적요

해풍은 육풍에 비해 더 높은 풍속, 염도, 습도를 가졌을 뿐 아니라 풍향의 전환도 빠른 특성을 갖고 있다. 수목의 초기 생장에 영향을 끼치는 주요한 인자 중 하나는 풍속이며, 일반적으로 초기 생장단계에서 수목의 생장률은 풍속이 감소될수록 증가하는 특성을 가진다. 따라서, 본 연구는 새만금 방조제에서 방풍시설을 설치함에 따라 수목의 생장과 해풍의 특성을 확인하기 위해 수행되었다. 본 연구에서는 폴리에틸렌재질의 방풍시설(개구율 40%)이 높이 3m, 길이 130m에 걸쳐 설치되었으며, 내외부에 1, 2, 3m 높이의 풍향풍속계를 5대 설치하여 2011년부터 2012년까지 1분 간격으로 수집하였다. 새만금 방조제 시험지의 풍향 빈도는 북풍이 26.8%, 북서풍 20.3%, 북동풍14.6% 순으로 나타났으며, 풍속은 높이별로 다르게 나타났다. 해송의 생장은 방풍시설 내부에서 자라는 경우가 외부에서 자라는 경우에 비해 수고 약 17%, 근원경 약 13% 높게 생장한 것으로 나타났다.

REFERENCES

Arya, S. P., 2001: Introduction to micrometeorology : second edition. Academic express. 312pp.

Ashenden, T. W. and T. A. Mansfield, 1977: Influence of wind speed on the sensitivity of ryegrass to $SO_2$. Journal of Experimental Botany 28(3), 729-735.crossref(new window)

Byun, J. K., C. S. Kim, C. C. Lim, and J. H. Jeong, 2011: Soil chemical property, mortality rates and growth of planting trees from soil covering depths in coastal reclaimed land of Asan area. Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer 44(3), 502-509.crossref(new window)

Caldwell, M. M., 1970: Plant gas exchange at high wind speed. Plant Physiology 46, 535-537.crossref(new window)

Campi, P., A. D. Palumbo, and M. Mastrorilli, 2012. Evapotranspiration estimation of crops protected by windbreak in a mediterranean region. Agricultural Water Management 104, 153-162.crossref(new window)

Grace, J., 1988: Plant response to wind. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 22-23, 71-88.crossref(new window)

Haurwitz, B., 1947: Comments on the sea-breeze circulation. Journal of Meteorological Society 4(1), 1-8.crossref(new window)

Jeong, Y. H., I. K. Lee, K. W. Seo, J. H. Lim, J. H. Kim, and M. H. Shin, 2011: Soil surface fixation by direct sowing of Zoysia japonica with soil improvement on the dredged soil slope. Journal of Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology 14(4), 1-10.

Jeong, Y. H., J. H. Lim, I. K. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. S. Kim, and K. Y. Seo, 2010: Development of vegetation base to promote tree growth in dredged sediment using soil conditioner : impressive view the soil conditioner in Saemankum on the slope of sea dike. Spring conference of Korea Forest Society, 385-386.

Kang, K., 1998: Wind – Tunnel simulation on the wind fence effect. Journal of Korea Environment Science 7(1), 20- 26. (in Korean with English abstract)

Lim, K. T., 1992: Introduction of meteorology, Donghwa technology, 274pp. (in Korean)

Munns, R., 2002: Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant, Cell and Environment 25, 239-250.crossref(new window)

Park, P. S., K. Y. Kim, W. S. Jeong, A. R. Han, J. C. Jo, J. B. Kim, and J. H. Kim, 2009: Comparison of seedling survival rate and growth among 8 different tree species in Seosan reclamation area. Journal of Korea Forest Society 98(4), 496-503. (in Korean with English abstract)

Park, S. Y., H. W. Lee, S. H. Lee, K. O. Lee, and H. E. Ji, 2011: Impact of the variation of sea breeze penetration due to terrain complexity on PBL development. Journal of Korea Environment Science 20(2), 275-289. (in Korean with English abstract)crossref(new window)

Preez, A.F. and D.G. Krger, 1975: The effect of the heat exchanger arrangement and wind-break walls on the performance of natural draft dry-cooling towers subjected to cross-winds. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 58(3), 293-303.

Salminen, H. and R. Jalkanen, 2005: Modelling the effect of temperature on height increment of Scots pine at high latitudes. Silva Fennica 39(4), 497-508.

Simpson, J. E., 1994: Sea breeze and local wind. Cambridge University, 239pp.

Seginer, I., 1975: Atmospheric-stability effect on windbreak shelter and drag. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 8(3-4), 383-400.crossref(new window)

Wadsworth, R. M., 1959: An optimum wind speed for plant growth, Annals of Botany 23(1), 195-199.

Whitehead, F. H., 1962: Experimental studies of the effect of wind on plant growth and anatomy II. Helianthus annuus. New Phytologist 61(1), 59-62.crossref(new window)

Whitehead F. H. and R. Luti, 1962: Experimental studies of the effect of wind on plant growth and anatomy I. Zea mays. New Phytologist 61(1), 56-58.crossref(new window)

Yan, Z., S. Bate, R. E. Chandle, and V. Isham, 2002: An analysis of daily maximum wind speed in northwestern Europe using generalized linear models. Journal of Climate 15(15), 2073-2088.crossref(new window)

Yates, C. J., D. A. Norton, and R. J. Hobbs, 2000: Grazing effects on plant cover soil and microclimate in fragmented woodlands in south-western Australia implications for restoration. Austral Ecology 25, 36-47.crossref(new window)

Yoon, J. Y., 2003: The Characteristics for wind in the 29 Cities of Korea. Architectural Institute of Korea 19(11), 229-236. (in Korean with English abstract)

You, K. P., 2005: Wind tunnel experiment about effect of protection against wind according to the variation porosity of wind fence. Architectural Institute of Korea 21(4), 109-116. (in Korean with English abstract)

Yum, S. H., S. J. Kang, S. H. Kim, S. B. Lee, and M. H. Kim, 2011: Facilities for bio-production and environmental engineering; effects of an anti-wind net on wind velocity reduction by a wind tunnel test and CFD. Journal of Biosystems Engineering 36(5), 355-360. (in Korean with English abstract)crossref(new window)

Zak, D. R. and D. K. Denton, 1998: Forest Ecology, John Wiley & Sons. 792 pp

Zhu, J. K, 2001: Plant salt tolerance. Trends in Plant Science 6(2), 66-71.