한국농림기상학회지, 제 15권 제3호(2013) (pISSN 1229-5671, eISSN 2288-1859)
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 15, No. 3, (2013), pp. 153~160
DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2013.15.3.153
ⓒ Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


환경인자에 따른 소나무림의 생태적 지위에 관한 연구

서동진(1), 오창영(1), 우관수(2), 이재천(1)
(1)국립산림과학원 산림유전자원부, (2)국립산림과학원 연구기획과

(2013년 09월 03일 접수; 2013년 09월 10일 수정; 2013년 09월 10일 수락)

A Study on Ecological Niche of Pinus densiflora Forests
according to the Environmental Factors

Dong-Jin Seo(1), Chang-Young Oh(1), Kwan-Soo Woo(2), Jae-Cheon Lee(1)
(1)Department of Forest Genetic Resources, Korea Forest Research Institute, Suwon 441-847, Korea
(2)Division of Research Planning and Coordination, Korea Forest Research Institute, Seoul 130-712, Korea

(Received September 03, 2013; Revised September 10, 2013; Accepted September 10, 2013)

ABSTRACT
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of ecological factors affecting Pinus densiflora forest distribution associated with climate change in the future. Ecological niche is used as a method to quantify the position occupied in biological communities, space, influence and all ecological factors. Ecological niche breadth was analyzed on meteorological and growth factors of P. densiflora. Nine sites (i.e., Gangneung, Jeongseon, Pyeongchang, Hamyang, Bonghwa, Yeongyang, Uljin, Uiseong and Boseong) were selected to set 20m X 20m quadrat from September to October 2010. The height, DBH, clearlength, crown width and basal area were measured at each quadrat and used as growth factors. In addition, the measured values from the closest weather stations of each survey area of the maximum, mean and minimum temperature, humidity and precipitation were used as meteorological factors. The ecological niche breadth of the five meteorological factors except humidity was low. It is considered that precipitation could effect on the distribution of P. densiflora forest. In particular, maximum temperature showed low ecological niche breadth less than 0.4 in most of the survey areas. However, the ecological niche breadth of the five growth factors was high in all survey areas.

Keyword: Climate change, Pinus densiflora, Ecological niche breadth, Niche overlap index, Environmental factors

MAIN

적요

본 연구는 온대 남부, 중부, 북부지역의 소나무림을 대상으로 기상인자, 생육인자에 대해 생태적 지위폭(ecological niche breadth)을 분석하였으며, 향후 기후변화에 따른 소나무림 분포에 미치는 환경 인자를 규명하기 위해 수행하였다. 2010년 9월부터 10월까지 강릉, 정선, 평창, 함양, 봉황, 영양, 울진, 의성 보성 9개 지역에 20×20m의 방형구를 설치하여 수고, 흉고직경, 지하고, 수관폭, 흉고단면적을 생육인자로 이용하였으며, 기상인자는 최저기온, 평균기온, 최고기온,습도, 강수량을 조사지역에서 가장 가까운 관측소의 측정값을 이용하였다. 5가지 기상인자에 대한 생태적 지위폭은 습도를 제외한 기상인자에서 생태적 지위폭이 낮게 나타났으며, 기상변화에 따른 소나무의 분포역이 한정될 가능성이 높아지는 것으로 해석할 수 있다. 또한 강수량과 기온변화가 소나무림의 분포에 더큰 영향을 주는 것으로 판단되며, 특히 최고기온의 경우 대부분의 조사지역에서 0.4이하의 낮은 생태적 지위폭을 보였다. 하지만 5가지 생육인자에 대한 생태적지위폭은 모든 조사지역에서 높게 나타났으며, 이는 소나무가 환경변화에 적응하여 분포역이 넓다는 것을 의미하는 것으로 기상인자와는 상반되는 결과를 보였다. 이러한 결과의 원인은 생육인자의 경우 과거 안정된 환경에 적응하여 지속적으로 생장하였기 때문에 생육 내성의 범위가 커 소나무의 생태적 지위폭이 넓게 나타났으며, 반대로 기상인자의 경우 지속적인 지구온난화의 결과로서 소나무가 생육하기 어려운 조건으로 변하기 때문으로 판단되며, 향후 기온상승으로 인한 소나무림의 분포지역의 감소가 지속적으로 이루어질 것으로 전망된다.

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