한국농림기상학회지, 제 15권 제3호(2013) (pISSN 1229-5671, eISSN 2288-1859)
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 15, No. 3, (2013), pp. 130~144
DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2013.15.3.130
ⓒ Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


도심지역 고온현상이 사과나무 생육과정에 미치는 영향:
대구광역시 ‘후지’/M.9을 사례로

사공동훈(1), 권헌중(1), 박무용(1), 송양익(1), 류수현(1), 김목종(1), 최경희(1), 윤태명(2)
(1)농촌진흥청 국립원예특작과학원 사과시험장, (2)경북대학교 원예과학과

(2013년 04월 01일 접수; 2013년 07월 17일 수정; 2013년 07월 31일 수락)

Impacts of Urban High Temperature Events on Physiology of Apple Trees:
A Case Study of ‘Fuji’/M.9 Apple Trees in Daegu, Korea

Dong-Hoon Sagong(1), Hun-Joong Kweon(1), Moo-Yong Park(1), Yang-Yik Song(1),
Su-Hyun Ryu(1), Mok-Jong Kim(1), Kyung-Hee Choi(1), Tae-Myung Yoon(2)
(1)Apple Research Station, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, R.D.A., Gunwi 716-812, Korea
(2)Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea

(Received April 01, 2013; Revised July 17, 2013; Accepted July 31, 2013)

ABSTRACT
In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature of urban area on the physiological response of apple tree including the photosynthesis, shoot growth, and fruit quality of ‘Fuji’/M.9 apple trees planted at Daegu urban area (DUA) and Gunwi rural area (GRA) for 2 years (2009-2010). During the apple growing season (April-October), the average air temperature of DUA was about 3.0oC higher than that of GRA and the total rainfall of DUA was 130 mm more than that of GRA. During fruit enlargement stage (June-August), the number of days that recorded daily mean temperature of over 30oC were ten on DUA in 2010, but there was no day when such temperature was experienced in 2009. Average air temperature of DUA during the maturation stage (September-October) was 19.8oC, which was 4.0oC higher than that of GRA. The higher temperature of over 30oC during fruit enlargement stage decreased the photosynthetic rate, shoot growth, fruit weight, and soluble solid content of ‘Fuji’/M.9 apple tree. The moderate temperature of about 20oC during maturation stage increased the photosynthetic rate and soluble solid content of ‘Fuji’/M.9 apple tree, but decreased fruit red color. In regional comparison with GRA, photosynthetic rate of DUA was changed from lower before rainy season to higher after rainy season. Fruit weight was higher in DUA than that of GRA. However, fruit weight between DUA and GRA did not show the difference when accumulated days that recorded daily maximum temperature over 35oC of DUA was increased. Compared to the GRA, soluble solid content of DUA was higher, but fruit red color of DUA was less. These results indicate that the poor red coloring is the most problematic in ‘Fuji’/M.9 apple tree by global warming and urbanization.

Keyword: Malus domestica Borkh, fruit red color, fruit weight, photosynthetic rate, shoot growth

MAIN

적요

본 시험은 도심지역의 고온이 사과나무의 생리적 반응에 미치는 영향을 구명하고자, 도심지역인 대구와 전원지역인 군위에 재식된 ‘후지’/M.9 사과나무의 광합성, 신초생장, 과실품질을 2년(2009-2010년) 동안 조사하였다. 사과 생육기(4-10월) 동안 대구의 평균기온은 군위보다 3.0oC 정도 높았고, 사과 생육기 동안의 총 강수량은 대구가 군위보다 100mm 정도 많았다. 과실 비대기(6-8월) 동안 대구는 일 평균기온이 30oC를 넘은 날이 2010년은 10일 정도 있었으나 2009년에는 하루도 없었다. 대구의 과실 성숙기(9-10월) 동안 평균기온은 19.8oC로 군위보다 4.0oC 정도 더 높았다. 과실 비대기의 30oC 이상의 고온은 ‘후지’/M.9 사과나무의 광합성속도, 신초생장, 과중 및 가용성 고형물 함량을 감소시켰다. 과실 성숙기의 20oC 정도의 온난한 기온은 광합성속도 및 가용성 고형물 함량을 증가시켰으나 착색을 감소시켰다. 지역별 비교에 있어서, 장마 전에는 대구의 광합성속도가 군위보다 낮았으나, 장마 이후로는 대구가 군위보다 높았다. 대구의 과중은 군위보다 컸으나, 대구의 일 최고기온이 35oC를 넘은 날이 많아질수록 대구와 군위의 과중차이는 없어졌다. 대구의 가용성 고형물 함량은 군위보다 높았으나 착색은 반대로 군위가 높았다. 결론적으로 지구온난화 및 도시화에 의해 ‘후지’/M.9 사과나무에서 가장 문제가 되는 부분은 착색불량이었다.

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