한국농림기상학회지, 제 15권 제2호(2013) (pISSN 1229-5671, eISSN 2288-1859)
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 15, No. 2, (2013), pp. 85~101
DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2013.15.2.085
ⓒ Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


농업생태계에서 농경지유형에 따른 C4식물의 출현과 분포

조광진(1), 오영주(2), 강기경(1), 한민수(1), 나영은(1), 김미란(1), 최락중(1), 김명현(1)
(1)국립농업과학원 기후변화생태과, (2)(주)미래환경생태연구소

(2013년 04월 22일 접수; 2013년 06월 17일 수정; 2013년 06월 19일 수락)

Occurrence and Distribution of C4 Plants under
Diverse Agricultural Field Types in Korea

Kwang-Jin Cho(1), Young-Ju Oh(2), Kee-Kyung Kang(1), Min-Su Han(1), Young-Eun Na(1),
Miran Kim(1), Lak-Jung Choe(1), Myung-Hyun KimI(1)
(1)Climate change and Agro-ecology Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science,
RDA, Suwon, 441-707, Korea
(2)Institute for Future Environmental Ecology, Suwon, 441-853, Korea

(Received April 22, 2013; Revised June 17, 2013; Accepted June 19, 2013)

ABSTRACT
In order to search for distribution characteristics on C4 plants at the paddy fields, uplands, orchard and roadside in South Korea, vascular plants were investigated. Flora investigation had been carried out from May 2002 to October 2006 at 241 plots. In the results of survey, the flora of these areas consist of 74 families, 231 genera and 352 species totally. The class frequencies were arranged by the order of Magnoliopsidae (255 species), Monocotyledoneae (89 species), Pteropsida (7 species) and Sphenopsida (1 species). The number of species in each investigated agricultural field types was 55 families with 203 species in paddy field, 49 families with 218 species in uplands, 44 families with 115 species in orchard and 48 families with 202 species in roadside respectiviely. Representative species compositions of these four agricultural field types were characterized by Artemisia princeps, Persicaria thunbergii in paddy field, Artemisia princeps, Erigeron annuus in upland and roadside, Commelina communis, Digitaria ciliaris in orchard, respectively. Therefore, indicative species in agricultural ecosystem was Artemisia princeps. Among the investigated 352 species, C4 plants identified were 38 species, and the occurrence ratio of C4 monocotyledonous plants were higher in paddy field, orchard and roadside than upland. Such differences in the occurrence ratio of C4 plants under diverse agricultural field types reflect differences in environmental condition such as micro-climate, soil moisture under various agricultural fields. Dominant C4 monocotyledonous plants were Digitaria ciliaris and Commelina communis, while C4 dicotyledonous plants were Amaranthus mangostanus and Chenopodium album var. centrorubrum in agricultural fields. Naturalized plants were identified as 47 species and occurrence ratio were higher in upland and roadside than other agricultural field types. Among the investigated naturalized plants, C4 plants were Amaranthus mangostanus and Amaranthus retroflexus. Distribution characteristics of representative C4 plants in agricultural field types, revealed that the projected increase in temperature due to climate change may provide better conditions for the growth of C4 plants. Thus, the necessity of long-term monitoring should be conducted on the diffusion of C4 plants that may threaten influence agroecosystem in Korea.

Keyword: C4 plants, Agricultural field types, Monocotyledonous plants, Dicotyledonous plants, Naturalized plants, Climate change

MAIN

적요

본 연구는 논, 밭, 과수원, 도로변에 생육하고 있는 식물상을 조사하여 C4식물의 분포특성을 규명하고자 하였다. 현장조사는 2002년부터 2006년까지 5년간 수행되었다. 그 결과, 총 74과 231속 352종이 확인되었으며, 쌍자엽식물 255종, 단자엽식물 89종, 양치식물 8종으로 분류되었다. 농경지유형별로는 논에서 55과 203종, 밭에서 49과 218종, 과수원에서 44과 115종,도로변에서 48과 202종이 출현하였다. 본 조사를 통하여 논은 쑥과 고마리, 밭과 도로변은 쑥과 개망초,과수원은 닭의장풀과 바랭이로 대표되며 농업생태계에서 출현율이 가장 높은 식물은 쑥으로 확인되었다. 또한, 출현식물 중 C4식물은 8과 25속 38종으로 확인되었으며, 논, 과수원, 도로변에서는 C4 단자엽식물의 출현율이 높았으며 밭에서는 다른 농경지유형에 비해 쌍자엽식물의 출현빈도가 높았다. 이러한 C4식물의 출현율 차이는 고온 건조한 우리나라 밭 주변 식물서식환경을 반영하고 있으며, 논과 과수원은 상대적으로 습윤한 미기후조건에서 건조조건이 아니라 온도조건에 의해 C4 단자엽식물이 분포하는 것으로 생각되었다. 또한 농업생태계를 대표하는 C4식물 중 단자엽식물은 바랭이와 닭의장풀이며 쌍자엽식물은 개비름과 명아주로 확인되었다. 본 조사에서 총 47종의 귀화식물이 확인되었으며 토양의 수분환경조건이 상대적으로 건조한 밭과 도로변에서 많은 귀화식물이 출현하였다. 귀화식물 가운데 C4 식물은 비름속의 개비름과 털비름 2종으로 나타났으며, 단자엽식물은 관찰되지 않았다. 본 연구에서는 농경지유형에 따른 대표적인 C4식물의 분포특성이 확인되었으며 지구온난화로 인한 기온의 상승으로 고온에 적응성이 높은 C4식물의 새로운 유입과 이미 유입된 종 가운데 농업생태계에 나쁜 영향을 미칠 수 있는 외래식물의 확산에 대한 장기적인 모니터링의 필요성을 제안하였다.

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