한국농림기상학회지, 제 8권 제4호(2006) (pISSN 1229-5671, eISSN 2288-1859)
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 8, No. 4, (2006), pp. 229~241
ⓒ Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


지구온난화에 따른 우리나라 벼농사지대의 생산성 재평가

정유란(1), 조경숙(2), 이변우(1)
(1)서울대학교 식물생산과학부, (2)기상청 기후예측과

(2006년 10월 27일 접수; 2006년 11월 22일 수락)

Evaluation of Site-specific Potential for Rice Production in
Korea under the Changing Climate

Uran Chung1, Kyung-Sook Cho2, and Byun-Woo Lee1
(1)Department of Plant Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea
(2)Climate Prediction Division, Korea Meteorological Administration, Seoul 156-720, Korea

(Received October 27, 2006; Accepted November 22, 2006)

ABSTRACT
Global air temperature has risen by 0.6oC over the last one hundred years due to increased atmospheric greenhouse gases. Moreover, this global warming trend is projected to continue in the future. This study was carried out to evaluate spatial variations in rice production areas by simulating rice-growth and development with projected high resolution climate data in Korea far 2011-2100, which was geospatially interpolated from the 25 km gridded data based on the IPCC SRES A2 emission scenario. Satellite remote sensing data were used to pinpoint the rice-growing areas, and corresponding climate data were aggregated to represent the official ‘crop reporting county’. For the simulation experiment, we used a CERES-Rice model modified by introducing two equations to calculate the leaf appearance rate based on the effective temperature and existing leaf number and the final number of leaves based on day-length in the photoperiod sensitive phase of rice. We tested the performance of this model using data-sets obtained from transplanting dates and nitrogen fertilization rates experiments over three years (2002 to 2004). The simulation results showed a good performance of this model in heading date prediction [R2=0.9586 for early (Odaebyeo), R2=0.9681 for medium (Hwasungbyeo), and R2=0.9477 for late (Dongjinbyeo) maturity cultivars]. A modified version of CERES-Rice was used to simulate the growth and development of three Japonica varieties, representing early, medium, and late maturity classes, to project crop status for climatological normal years between 2011 and 2100. In order to compare the temporal changes, three sets of data representing 3 climatological years (2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100) were successively used to run the model. Simulated growth and yield data of the three Japonica cultivars under the observed climate for 1971-2000 was set as a reference. Compared with the current normal, heading date was accelerated by 7 days for 2011-2040 and 20 days for 2071-2100. Physiological maturity was accelerated by 15 days for 2011-2040 and 30 days for 2071-2100. Rice yield was in general reduced by 6-25%, 3-26%, and 3-25% per 10a in early, medium, and late maturity classes, respectively. However, mid to late maturing varieties showed an increased yield in northern Gyeonggi Province and in most of Kwangwon Province in 2071-2100.

Keyword: Rice, Climate change, CERES-Rice, Gridded climate data, Japonica rice

MAIN

적요

본 연구에서는 실측 일기상자료 대신 예측 기후평년 값을 적용하여 기후변화와 그에 상응한 벼 작황의 지리적 분포양상을 복원함으로써 지구온난화에 따른 우리나라 벼농사지대의 생산성을 재평가하였다. 기상청 56개 지점 종관자료(일 최고/최저 기온의 월별 평균값)를 1971-2000년 30년 단위로 수집하여 270 m 해상도의 수치기후도를 작성하고, 벼논픽셀에 해당되는 기후자료를 추출하였다. 동일한 시군에 속하는 벼논픽셀의 기후자료를 평균함으로써 시군단위의 “벼논맞춤형 기후자료”를 준비하였다. 같은 방법으로 기상연구소에서 제작한 2011-2100년 기간의 3개 평년(2011-2040, 2041-2070, 2071-2100) 기후시나리오에 근거하여 해당 평년의 기후자료를 추정하였다. 농촌진흥청의 정밀 토양도로부터 해당 픽셀의 토성과 토심정보를 검색하고 이를 토대로 유효수분 조견표에 의해 토양자료를 준비하였다. 자포니카형 벼의 특성을 갖도록 개조한벼 생육모형(CERES-Japonica)에 이들 자료를 입력하고 조생종(오대벼), 중생종 (화성벼), 만생종 (동진벼)의 생육을 모의하였다. 시군 공간평균을 기준으로 3품종 모두 가까운 미래(2011-2040년)에는 출수기가 일주일 정도 빨라지고, 먼 미래(2071-2100년)에는 최대 20일까지 단축될 수 있다. 생리적 성숙기는 3품종 모두 가까운 미래(2011-2040년)에는 15일 정도 단축되고, 먼 미래(2071-2100년)에는 최대 한달까지도 빨라질 수 있어 출수기에 비해 단축정도가 심하다. 평야지 수량의 경우 조생종인 오대벼는 10a당 6-25%, 중생종 화성벼는 3-26%, 만생종 동진벼는 3-25%까지 감소하였다. 하지만 산간지역에서는 발육속도가 빨라지고 수량이 증가하거나 큰 변화가 없는 곳도 많아 온난화조건에서도 지역별 정밀기후 추정과 이에 근거한 최적품종의 선택, 이앙기 및 수확기 등 생육기간의 조절이 온난화 대응기술로서 유효할 것으로 기대된다.

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