한국농림기상학회지, 제 8권 제1호(2006) (pISSN 1229-5671, eISSN 2288-1859)
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 8, No. 1, (2006), pp. 1~9
ⓒ Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


포도 동해위험 판정기준으로서 온도시간 기반의 휴면심도 이용

권은영(1), 정재은(2), 정유란(3), 이승종(4), 송기철(5), 최동근(6), 윤진일(2)
(1)(주)선도소프트 자원환경사업단, (2)경희대학교 생태시스템공학과, (3)서울대학교 농학과
(4)김제시농업기술센터, (5)원예연구소 과수과, (6)전북대학교 원예학과

(2005년 12월 11일 접수; 2006년 01월 09일 수락)

A Thermal Time-Driven Dormancy Index as a Complementary
Criterion for Grape Vine Freeze Risk Evaluation

Eun-Young Kwon(1), Jea-Eun Jung(2), Uran Chung(3), Seung-Jong Lee(4),
Gi-Cheol Song(5), Dong-Geun Choi(6), Jin I. Yun(2)
(1)Division of Natural Resources and Environment, Sundo Soft Inc., Seoul, Korea
(2)Department of Ecosystem Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Suwon, Korea
(3)Department of Agronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
(4)Gimje Agricultural Technology Center, Gimje, Korea
(5)Fruit Tree Division, National Horticultural Research Institute, Suwon, Korea
(6)Department of Horticulture, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea

(Received December 11, 2005; Accepted January 09, 2006)

ABSTRACT
Regardless of the recent observed warmer winters in Korea, more freeze injuries and associated economic losses are reported in fruit industry than ever before. Existing freeze-frost forecasting systems employ only daily minimum temperature for judging the potential damage on dormant flowering buds but cannot accommodate potential biological responses such as short-term acclimation of plants to severe weather episodes as well as annual variation in climate. We introduce ‘dormancy depth’, in addition to daily minimum temperature, as a complementary criterion for judging the potential damage of freezing temperatures on dormant flowering buds of grape vines. Dormancy depth can be estimated by a phonology model driven by daily maximum and minimum temperature and is expected to make a reasonable proxy for physiological tolerance of buds to low temperature. Dormancy depth at a selected site was estimated for a climatological normal year by this model, and we found a close similarity in time course change pattern between the estimated dormancy depth and the known cold tolerance of fruit trees. Inter-annual and spatial variation in dormancy depth were identified by this method, showing the feasibility of using dormancy depth as a proxy indicator for tolerance to low temperature during the winter season. The model was applied to 10 vineyards which were recently damaged by a cold spell, and a temperature-dormancy depth-freeze injury relationship was formulated into an exponential-saturation model which can be used for judging freeze risk under a given set of temperature and dormancy depth. Based on this model and the expected lowest temperature with a 10-year recurrence interval, a freeze risk probability map was produced for Hwaseong County, Korea. The results seemed to explain why the vineyards in the warmer part of Hwaseong County have been hit by more freeBe damage than those in the cooler part of the county. A dormancy depth-minimum temperature dual engine freeze warning system was designed for vineyards in major production counties in Korea by combining the site-specific dormancy depth and minimum temperature forecasts with the freeze risk model. In this system, daily accumulation of thermal time since last fall leads to the dormancy state (depth) for today. The regional minimum temperature forecast for tomorrow by the Korea Meteorological Administration is converted to the site specific forecast at a 30m resolution. These data are input to the freeze risk model and the percent damage probability is calculated for each grid cell and mapped for the entire county. Similar approaches may be used to develop freeze warning systems for other deciduous fruit trees.

Keyword: Vineyards, Freeze warning, Dormancy, Cold resistance, Thermal time

MAIN

적요

동계기온의 지속적인 상승에도 불구하고 낙엽과수의 동해발생빈도는 줄지 않고 있지만, 동해 경감을 위해 필수적인 사전경보시스템에 대한 연구는 미흡한 실정이다. 본 연구에서는 급격한 기후변화에 적응하지 못하는 기존의 ‘최저기온 의존 동해경보시스템’을 보완하기 위해 생물계절이론에 근거한 휴면심도를 동해위험도 판정의 추가기준으로 제시한다. 평년 기온자료와 생물계절모형에 근거한 휴면심도의 경시변화양상은 낙엽과수의 교과서적인 내동성 변화추세와 일치하였다. 개별 연도의 기온자료에 의해 추정된 휴면심도는 연차변이가 현저하였으며 동일 연도 내 지역간 변이도 확인할 수 있었다. 전북 김제시 백구면 Campbell Early 주산지 10개 포도원을 대상으로 소기후모형과 인근 기상관서 기후자료에 의해 연도별 최저기온을 복원하고, 최저기온 발생일의 휴면심도를 생물계절모형으로 추정하였으며, 동해정도를 조사하였다. 최저기온-휴면심도-피해율 사이의 관계를 분석하여 동해위험도 판정식을 작성하고, 이를 근거로 경북 영천, 충북 옥천, 충남 아산, 경기 화성 등 4개 포도 주산지 시군에 대해 1971-2000 평년의 동해위험지도를 30 m 공간해상도로 제작하였다. 화성지역의 경우 1996년의 동해사례에 의해 동해위험지도의 신뢰성을 부분적으로 검증할 수 있었다. 월동기간 중 실측기온자료에 의해 임의날짜의 휴면심도를 추정하고, 기상청 예보기온을 소기후모형에 의해 30 m 해상도의 국지기온 예상분포도로 변환한 다음, 내일 아침의 동해가능성을 동해위험도 판정식에 의해 판정할 수 있는 실시간 동해경보시스템을 설계하였다. 이 시스템의 실제 운영을 위해 필요한 프로그램을 작성하고 하드웨어를 갖추어 기상청 국가농업기상센터에 이전, 설치하였다. 산출되는 최저기온 및 동해위험정보는 표준지리정보로 가공되어 기상청 농업 기상정보서비스를 통해 시범적으로 제공될 예정이다.

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