한국농림기상학회지, 제 9권 제4호(2007) (pISSN 1229-5671, eISSN 2288-1859)
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 9, No. 4, (2007), pp. 217~227
DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2007.9.4.217
ⓒ Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


미국 북서부지역에 발생하는 서부양벚과실파리의 발생
월동 후 발생 동태에 관한 연구

송유한, 안광복
경상대학교 농업생명과학연구원

(2007년 11월 10일 접수; 2007년 12월 03일 수락)

Development of Western Cherry Fruit Fly, Rhagoletis indifferens
Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), after Overwintering in the
Pacific North West Area of USA

Yoohan Song, Kwang-Bok Ahn
Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Korea

(Received November 10, 2007; Accepted December 03, 2007)

ABSTRACT
The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae), is the most important pest of cultivated cherries in the Pacific Northwest area of the United States, being widely distributed throughout Oregon, Washington, Montana, Utah, Idaho, Colorado and parts of Nevada. The control of R. indifferens has been based on calendar sprays after its first emergence because of their zero tolerance for quarantine. Therefore, a good prediction model is needed for the spray timing. This study was conducted to obtain the empirical population dynamic information of R. indifferens after overwintering in the major cherry growing area of the Pacific Northwest of the United States, where the information is critically needed to develop and validate the prediction model of the fruit fly. Adult fly populations were monitored by using yellow sticky and emergence traps. Larvae growth and density in fruits were observed by fruit sampling and the pupal growth and density were monitored by pupal collection traps. The first adult was emerged around mid May and a large number of adults were caught in early June. A fruit had more than one larva from mid June to early July. A large number of pupae were caught in early July. The pupae were collected in various period of time to determine the effect of pupation timing and the soil moisture content during the winter. A series of population density data collected in each of the developmental stage were analyzed and organized to provide more reliable validation information for the population dynamic models.

Keyword: Western cherry fruit fly, Phenology, Prediction, Model, Degree-day

MAIN

적요

서부양벚과실파리(Rhagolettis indifferens Curran)은 미국 북서부지역 및 California 북부에서 재배되는 단체리(Prunus avium)에 가장 큰 피해를 주는 해충이다. 체리의 수출을 위한 식물검역에서 Zero Tolerance의 규제를 받고 있는 이 해충의 방제를 위해 농가에서는 월동 후 우화 시점부터 지속적으로 약제를 살포하고있으며, 살충제 처리의 적기를 예측할 수 있는 모형이 절실히 필요한 실정이다. 본 연구는 서부양벚과실파리를 대상으로 월동 후 성충의 우화 및 발생시기, 유충의 밀도변화, 번데기의 용화시기 및 밀도변화 등을 정량적으로 추적하여 개체군 밀도의 경시적 변동과 월동 후 우화시기를 예측하는 모형 검정의 기초자료로 사용코자 수행하였다. 이를 위하여 황색끈끈이트랩, 우화케이지, 용화트랩 등을 이용하여 실제 과원에서 각 태별 발생경과를 경시적으로 조사하였으며, 체리 과실이 달리는 시기부터 일정 간격으로 과실을 수거하여 시기별 과실 내부의 유충 수를 조사하였고, 실내에서 용화케이지를 이용하여 용화시기를 조사하였다. 그 결과 월동 성충의 우화는 5월 중순에 시작하여 6월 초순에 정점에 도달하였고, 6월 중순부터 7월 상순까지 과실 당 1마리 이상의 유충이 존재하였다. 7월 중순에 번데기의 수가 정점에 도달하였으며, 월동 중에 토양습도 등의 조건에 따른 번데기의 발육속도 및 생존율을 측정하기 위해 대량의 번데기를 확보하였다. 이 연구에서 얻어진 자료에서 나타난 과실파리의 월동 후 개체군 밀도변동과 용화시기를 Song et al.(2003)의 모형에서 예측한 결과와 비교한 결과 모형에 의해 예측된 발생일과 실측 발생일과는 1~2일 차이로 매우 정확하게 예측이 되었다. 이로 미루어 볼 때 본 연구에서 획득한 포장 실측자료는 누적 우화일, 유충의 발육단계, 산란일 등 다른 중요한 생물학적 사건을 예측하는 모형의 정확도 검정에도 잘 활용될 수 있을 것으로 생각된다.

REFERENCES

AliNiazee, M. T., 1974: The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) 1. Distribution of the diapausing pupae in the soil. Canadian Entomology 106, 909-912crossref(new window)

AliNiazee, M. T., 1976: Thermal unit requirements for determining adult emergence of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Environmental Entomology 5, 397-402

AliNiazee, M. T., 1977: Lavoratory rearing of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae): oviposition and larval diets. Canadian Entomology 109, 1227-1234crossref(new window)

AliNiazee, M. T., 1978: The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagolettis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tehpritidae) 3. Developing a management program by utilizing attractant traps as monitoring devices. Canadian Entomology 110, 1133-1139crossref(new window)

AliNiazee, M. T., 1979: A computerized phenology model for predicting biological events of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae). Canadian Entomology 111, 1101-1109

AliNiazee, M. T., 1981: Improved control of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt.: Tephritidae), based on area-wide monitoring. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 78, 27-33

Baskerville, G. L., and P. Emin, 1969: Rapid estimation of heat accumulation from maximum and minimum temperatures. Ecology 50, 514-516crossref(new window)

Frick, K. E., H. G. Simkover, and H. S. Telford, 1954: Biononics of the cherry fruit flies in eastern Washington. Technical Bulletin Washington Agricultural Experimental Station 13, 66pp

Jones, V. P., D. G. Alston, J. F. Brunner, D. W. Davis, and M. D. Shelton, 1991: Phenology of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Utah and Washington. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 84, 488-492

Manetsch, T. J. and G. L. Park, 1974: Simulation of time delay. Systems Analysis and Simulation with Application to Economic and Social Systems, East Lansing (Ed), Department of Electrical Engineering and System Science, Michigan State University, Michigan

Mumtaz, M. M., and M. T. AliNiazee, 1983: The ovipositiondeterring pheromone in the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Dipt., Tephritidae). 1. Biological properties. Sonderdruck aus Bd. 96, H1, S. 83-93

Riedl, H. and S. A. Hoying, 1980: Seasonal patterns of emergence, flight activity and oviposition of the walnut husk fly in Northern California. Environmental Entomology 9, 567-571

Riedl, H. and L. B. Coop, 1996: Phenology model for cherry fruit fly in Hood River and The Dalles. Oregon Sweet Cherry Commission Progress Report. Oct. 2, 1996. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 5pp

Song, Y. H., L. B. Coop, M. Omeg, and H. Riedl, 2003: Development of a phenology model for predicting western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), emergence in the mid Columbia area of the Western United States. Journal of Asia Pacific Entomology 6(2), 187-192crossref(new window)

Stark, S. B., and M. T. AliNiazee, 1982a: Evaluation of modifications to a basic thermal summation model for predicting the time of emergence of the adult western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Dipt.,Tephritidae). Sonderdruck aus Bd. 94, H4, S. 401-407

Stark, S. B., and M. T. AliNiazee, 1982b. Model of Postdiapause development in the Western Cherry Fruit Fly. Environmental Entomology 11, 471-474

van Kirk, J. R., and M. T. AliNiazee, 1981: Determining low-temperature threshold for pupal development of the western cherry fruit fly for use in phenology models. Environmental Entomology 10, 968-971