한국농림기상학회지, 제 9권 제3호(2007) (pISSN 1229-5671, eISSN 2288-1859)
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 9, No. 3, (2007), pp. 161~169
DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2007.9.3.161
ⓒ Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


기후변화가 습지 내 온실기체 발생과 미생물 군집구조에 미치는 영향

김선영(1), 강호정(2)
(1)이화여자대학교 환경공학과, (2) 연세대학교 토목환경공학부

(2007년 03월 06일 접수; 2007년 09월 03일 수락)

Climate Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and
Microbial Communities in Wetlands

Seon-Young Kim(1), Hojeong Kang(2)
(1)Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 120-750, Korea
(2)School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749, Korea

(Received March 06, 2007; Accepted September 03, 2007)

ABSTRACT
Global climate changes including elevated CO2, drought, and global warming may influence greenhouse gas emissions in wetlands. A variety of microbial communities including denitrifiers and methanogens play a key role in determining such processes. In this paper we summarize current knowledge on the effects of climate changes on CO2, CH4, and N2O production and microbial communities mediating those processes in wetlands. Elevated atmospheric CO2 and warming generally increase gas emissions, but effects of droughts differ with gas type and drying level. The responses of microbial community to climate changes in terms of composition, diversity and abundance are still in question due to lack of studies in wetlands. Based on the present review, it is suggested that future studies on microbial processes should consider microbial community and relationships between microbial function and structure with diverse environmental factors including climate changes. Such knowledge would be crucial to better understand and predict accurately any shifts in ecological functions of wetlands.

Keyword: Elevated CO2, Drought, Greenhouse gas emissions, Microbial community, Warming, Wetland

MAIN

적요

대기 중 이산화탄소 농도 및 온도 증가와 강수 패턴 변화에 따른 가뭄 정도 및 횟수의 변화는 습지에서 발생하는 온실가스의 양에 영향을 미칠 수 있다. 습지에 존재하는 다양한 미생물 군집(탈질세균 및 메탄생성세균) 이 온실가스 생성에 있어 중요한 역할을 감당한다. 본 논문은 지금까지 전지구적 기후변화가 습지에서의 온실가스 발생과 관련 미생물 군집에 미치는 영향에 관한 다양한 연구를 정리하는 데 그 목적이 있다. 대기 중 이산화탄소 농도와 기온 증가는 일반적으로 온실가스 생성을 증가시켰다. 반면, 가뭄의 영향은 기체 종류와 가뭄 정도에 따라 다양한 결과가 보고되었다. 기후변화에 따른 미생물 군집의 변화는 습지시스템에서 보고된 연구의 부족으로 인해 특정한 결론을 도출할 수 없었다. 본 총설은 습지에서 미생물을 매개로 한 반응을 연구함에 있어 관련 미생물 군집구조의 특성을 파악하고, 다양한 환경인자에 대한 그들의 반응을 알아내는 것과 미생물 반응과 군집구조간의 상관 관계를 도출하는 것의 중요성을 제안한다. 이는 향후 전지구적 기후 변화가 습지의 생태학적 기능에 미칠 영향을 더 잘 이해하고 예측하는데 있어 매우 중요할 것이라 사료된다.

REFERENCES

Alm, J., L. Schulman, J. Walden, H. Nykänen, P. J. Martikainen, and J. Silvola, 1999: Carbon balance of a boreal bog during a year with an exceptionally dry summer. Ecology 80, 161-174

Baldwin, D. S., and A. M. Mitchell, 2000: The effects of drying and re-flooding on the sediment and soil nutrient dynamics of lowland river-flood plain systems: a synthesis. Regulated Rivers Research and Management 16(5), 457-467

Bayley, S. E., R. S. Behr, and C. A. Elly, 1986: Retention and release of S from A freshwater wetland. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 31(1-2), 101-114crossref(new window)

Biasi, C., O. Rusalimova, H. Meyer, C. Kaiser, W. Wanek, P. Barsukov, H. Junger, and A. Richter, 2005: Temperature-dependent shift from labile to recalcitrant carbon sources of arctic heterotrophs. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 19, 1401-1408crossref(new window)

Boon, P. I., A. Mitchell, and K. Lee, 1997: Effects of wetting and drying on methane emissions from ephemeral floodplain wetlands in south-eastern Australia. Hydrobiologia 357, 73-87crossref(new window)

Briones, M. J. I., J. Poskitt, and N. Ostle, 2004: Influence of warming and enchytraeid activities on soil $CO_2$ and $CH_4$ fluxes. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 36, 1851-1859crossref(new window)

Carnol, M., and P. Ineson, 1999: Environmental factors controlling $NO^{3−}$ leaching, $N_2O$ emissions and numbers of $NH^{4+}$ oxidisers in a coniferous forest soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31(7), 979-990crossref(new window)

Chin, K. J., T. Lukow, and R. Conrad, 1999: Effect of temperature on structure and function of the methanogenic archaeal community in an anoxic rice field soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65(6), 2341-2349

Chung, H., D. R. Zak, and E. A. Lilleskov, 2006: Fungal community composition and metabolism under elevated $CO_2$ and $O_3$. Oecologia 147(1), 143-154crossref(new window)

Cicerone, R. J., and R. S. Oremland, 1988: Biogeochemical aspects of atmospheric methane. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 2, 299-327crossref(new window)

Cole, L., R. D. Bardgett, D. P. Ineson, and P. J. Hobbs, 2002: Enchytraeid worm (Oligochaeta) influences on microbial community structure, nutrient dynamics and plant growth in blanket peat subjected to warming. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34(1), 83-92crossref(new window)

Corstanje, R., 2003: Experimental and multivariate analysis of biogeo-indicators of change in wetland ecosystems. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Florida, Gainesville

Davidsson, T. E., M. Trepel, and J. Schrautzer, 2002: Denitrification in drained and rewetted minerotrophic peat soils in Northern Germany (Pohnsdorfer Stauung). Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 165(2), 199-204

Deiglmayr, K., L. Philippot, U. A. Hartwig, and E. Kandeler, 2004: Structure and activity of the nitrate-reducing community in the rhizosphere of Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens under long-term elevated atmospheric $pCO_2$. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 49, 445-454crossref(new window)

Deslippe, J. R., K. N. Egger, and G. H. R. Henry, 2005: Impacts of warming and fertilization on nitrogen-fixing microbial communities in the Canadian High Arctic. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 53(1), 41-50crossref(new window)

Dowrick, D. J., C. Freeman, M. A. Lock, and B. Reynolds, 2006: Sulphate reduction and the suppression of peatland methane emissions following summer drought. Geoderma 132, 384-390crossref(new window)

Eliasson, P. E., R. E. McMurtrie, D. A. Pepper, M. Stromgren, S. Linder, and G. I. Agren, 2005: The response of heterotrophic $CO_2$ flux to soil warming. Global Change Biology 11(1), 167-181crossref(new window)

Fenner, N., C. Freeman, and B. Reynolds, 2005: Observations of a seasonally shifting thermal optimum in peatland carbon-cycling processes; implications for the global carbon cycle and soil enzyme methodologies. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37(10), 1814-1821crossref(new window)

Fenner, N., D. J. Dowrick, M. A. Lock, C. R. Rafarel, and C. Freeman, 2006: A novel approach to studying the effects of temperature on soil biogeochemistry using a thermal gradient bar. Soil Use and Management 22, 267-273crossref(new window)

Fey, A., and R. Conrad, 2000: Effect of temperature on carbon and electron flow and on the archaeal community in methanogenic rice field soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66(11), 4790-4797crossref(new window)

Fierer, N., B. P. Colman, J. P. Schimel, and R. B. Jackson, 2006: Predicting the temperature dependence of microbial respiration in soil: A continental-scale analysis. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 20, GB3026crossref(new window)

Fierer, N., J. P. Schimel, and P. A. Holden, 2003: Influence of drying-rewetting frequency on soil bacterial community structure. Microbial Ecology 45, 63-71crossref(new window)

Freeman, C, J. Hudson, M. A. Lock, B. Reynolds, and C. Swanson, 1994: A possible role for sulphate in the suppression of methane fluxes following drought. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26, 1439-1442crossref(new window)

Freeman, C, N. Fenner, N. J. Ostle, H. Kang, D. J. Dowrick, B. Reynolds, M. A. Lock, D. Sleep, S. Hughes, and J. Hudson, 2004. Dissolved organic carbon export from peatlands under elevated carbon dioxide levels. Nature 430, 195-198crossref(new window)

Freeman, C., G. B. Nevison, H. Kang, S. Hughes, B. Reynolds, and J. A. Hudson, 2002: Contrasted effects of simulated drought on the production and oxidation of methane in a mid-Wales wetland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34, 61-67crossref(new window)

Freeman, C., G. Liska, N. J. Ostle, J. A. Hudson., M. A. Lock, and B. Reynolds, 1996: Microbial activity and enzymic decomposition processes following peatland water table drawdown. Plant and Soil 180, 121-127crossref(new window)

Freeman, C., N. J. Ostle, and H. Kang, 2001: An enzymic latch on a global carbon store. Nature 409: 149

Freeman, C., M. A. Lock, and B. Reynolds, 1993: Fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide from a Welsh peatland following simulation of water table draw-down: Potential feedback to climatic change. Biogeochemistry 19, 51-60

Gorham, E., 1991: Northern peatlands: role in the carbon cycle and probable to climatic warming. Ecological Applications 1, 182-195crossref(new window)

Griffiths, B. S., K. Ritz, N. Ebblewhite, E. Paterson, and K. Killham, 1998: Ryegrass rhizosphere microbial community structure under elevated carbon dioxide concentrations with observations on wheat rhizosphere. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 30(3), 315-321crossref(new window)

Gruter, D., B. Schmid, and H. Brandl, 2006: Influence of plant diversity and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on belowground bacterial diversity. BMC Microbiology 6, 68-76crossref(new window)

Heilman, J. L., F. A. Heinsch, D. R. Cobos, and K. J. McInnes, 2000: Energy balance of a high marsh on the Texas Gulf Coast: effect of water availability. Journal of Geophysical Research 105, 22371-22377crossref(new window)

Heinsch, F. A., J. L. Heilman, K. J. McInnes, D. R. Cobos, D. A. Zuberer, and D. L. Roelke, 2004: Carbon dioxide exchange in a high marsh on the Texas Gulf Coast: effects of freshwater availability. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 125, 159-172crossref(new window)

Hirschel, G., C. Korner, and J. A. Arnone III, 1997: Will rising atmospheric $CO_2$ affect leaf litter quality and in situ decomposition rates in native plant communities? Oecologia 110, 387-392crossref(new window)

Hooper, D. U., D. E. Bignell, V. K., Brown, L. Brussaard, J. M, Dangerfield, D. H. Wall, and A. D. Wardle, D. C. Coleman, K. E. Giller, P. Lavelle, W. H. Van Del Putten, P. C. de Ruiter, J. Rusek, W. L. Silver, J. M. Tiedje, and V. Wolters, 2000: Interactions between aboveground and belowground biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems: Patterns, mechanisms, and feedbacks. Bioscience 50, 1049-1061crossref(new window)

Hutchin, P. R., M. C. Press, J. A. Lee, and T. W. Ashenden, 1995: Elevated concentrations of $CO_2$ may double methane emissions from mires. Global Change Biology 1, 125-128crossref(new window)

IPCC, 2001: Climate Change 2001: the scientific basis. Cambridge University Press

Janus, L. R., N. L. Angeloni, J. McCormack, S. T. Rier, N. C. Tuchman, and J. J. Kelly, 2005: Elevated atmospheric $CO_2$ alters soil microbial communities associated with Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides) roots. Microbial Ecology 50(1), 102-109crossref(new window)

Jauhiainen, J., J. Silvola, K. Tolonen, and H. Vasander, 1997: Response of Sphagnum fuscum to water levels and $CO_2$ concentration. Journal of Bryology 19, 391-400

Jossi, M., N. Fromin, S. Tarnawski, F. Kohler, F. Gillet, M. Aragno, and J. Hamelin, 2006: How elevated $pCO_2$ modifies total and metabolically active bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of two perennial grasses grown under field conditions. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 55,339- 350crossref(new window)

Kang, H. J., C. Freeman, and T. W. Ashendon, 2001: Effects of elevated $CO_2$ on fen peat biogeochemistry. The Science of the Total Environment 279, 45-50crossref(new window)

Kang, H. J., S. Y. Kim, N. Fenner, and C. Freeman, 2005: Shifts of soil enzyme activities in wetlands exposed to elevated $CO_2$. Science of the Total Environment 337, 207-212crossref(new window)

Kim, J., S. B. Verma, and D. P. Billesbach, 1999: Seasonal variation in methane emission from a temperate Phragmites- dominated marsh: effect of growth stage and plant-mediated transport. Global Change Biology 5(4), 433-440crossref(new window)

Kim, J., and S. B. Verma, 1992: Soil surface $CO_2$ flux in a Minnesota peatland. Biogeochemistry 18, 37-51crossref(new window)

Kim, J., S. B. Verma, D. P. Billesbach, and R. J. Clement, 1998: Diel variation in methane emission from a midlatitude prairie wetland: significance of convective throughflow in phragmites australis. Journal of Geophysical research 103, 28029-28039crossref(new window)

Kim, S. Y., 2007: A study of wetland vegetation and microbial communities under elevated $CO_2$, warming, and drought. PhD dissertation, Ewha Womans University

Knorr, W., I. C. Prentice, J. I. House, and E. A. Holland, 2005: On the available evidence for the temperature dependence of soil organic carbon. Biogeosciences Discussions 2, 749-755

Lafleur, P. M., T. R. Moore, N. T. Roulet, and S. Frolking, 2005: Ecosystem respiration in a cool temperate bog depends on peat temperature but not water table. Ecosystems 8, 619-629crossref(new window)

Lee, S. H., S. Y. Kim, and H. J. Kang, 2004: Influence of elevated $CO_2$ on denitrifying bacterial community in a wetland soil. Korean Journal of Microbiology 40(3), 244-247

Lipson, D. A., M. Blair, G. Barron-Gafford, K. Grieve, and R. Murthy, 2006: Relationships between microbial community structure and soil processes under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. Microbial Ecology 51(3), 302-314crossref(new window)

Lueders, T., and M. Friedrich, 2000: Archaeal population dynamics during sequential reduction processes in rice field soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66(7), 2732-2742crossref(new window)

Marilley, L., U. A. Hartwig, and M. Aragno, 1999: Influence of an elevated atmospheric $CO_2$ content on soil and rhizosphere bacterial communities beneath Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens under field conditions. Microbial Ecology 38, 39-49crossref(new window)

Mayer, H. P., and R. Conrad, 1990: Factors influencing the population of methanogenic bacteria and the initiation of methane production upon flooding of paddy soil. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 73, 103-112crossref(new window)

McCune, B., and J. B. Grace, 2002: Analysis of Ecological Communities. Gleneden Beach. MjM Software Design, 300pp

Megonigal, J. P., and W. H. Schlesinger, 1997: Enhanced $CH_4$ emission from a wetland soil exposed to elevated $CO_2$. Biogeochemistry 37(1), 77-88crossref(new window)

Metje, M., and P. Frenzel, 2005: Effect of temperature on anaerobic ethanol oxidation and methanogenesis in acidic peat from a northern wetland. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71(12), 8191-8200crossref(new window)

Mitchell, E. A. D., A. Buttler, P. Grosvernier, H. Rydin, A. Siegenthaler, and J. M. Gobat, 2002: Contrasted effects of increased N and $CO_2$ supply on two keystone species in peatland restoration and implications for global change. Ecology 90, 529-533crossref(new window)

Montealegre, C. M., C. van Kessel, J. M. Blumenthal, H. Hur, U. A. Hartwig, and M. J. Sadowsky, 2000: Elevated Atmospheric $CO_2$ alters microbial population structure in a pasture ecosystem. Global Change Biology 6, 475-482crossref(new window)

Montealegre, C. M., C. van Kessel, M. P. Russelle, and M. J. Sadowsky, 2002: Changes in microbial activity and composition in a pasture ecosystem exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. Plant and Soil 243(2), 197-207crossref(new window)

Moore, T. R., and N. T. Roulet, 1993: Methane flux: Water table relations in northern wetlands. Geophysical Research Letters 20(7), 587-590crossref(new window)

Moore, T. R., and R. Knowles, 1989: Influence of water table levels on methane and carbon dioxide emissions from peatland soils. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 69(1), 33-38

Moore, T. R., J. L. Bubier, S. E. Frolking, P. M. Lafleur, and N. T. Roulet, 2002: Plant biomass and production and $CO_2$ exchange in an ombrotrophic bog. Journal of Ecology 90(1), 25-36crossref(new window)

Nannipieri, P., J. Ascher, M. T. Ceccherini, L. Landi, G. Pietramellara, and G.. Renella, 2003: Microbial diversity and soil functions. European Journal of Soil Science 54(4), 655-670crossref(new window)

Niklaus, P. A., D. Alphei, D. Ebersberger, C. Kampichler, E. Kandeler, and D. Tscherko, 2003: Six years of in situ $CO_2$ enrichment evoke changes in soil structure and soil biota of nutrient-poor grassland. Global Change Biology 9, 585-600crossref(new window)

Niklaus, P. A., and C. Korner, 1996: Responses of soil microbiota of a late successional alpine grassland to long term $CO_2$ enrichment. Plant and Soil 184(2), 219-229crossref(new window)

Oechel, W. C., G. L. Vourlitis, S. J. Hastings, R. P. Ault, and P. Bryant, 1998: The effects of water table manipulation and elevated temperature on the net $CO_2$ flux of wet sedge tundra ecosystems. Global Change Biology 4, 77-90crossref(new window)

Phillips, R. L., D. R. Zak, W. E. Holmes, and D. C. White, 2002: Microbial community composition and function beneath temperate trees exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone. Oecologia 131(2), 236-244crossref(new window)

Ratering, S., and R. Conrad, 1998: Effects of short-term drainage and aeration on the production of methane in submerged rice soil. Global Change Biology 4(4), 397-407crossref(new window)

Rees, G. N., G. O. Watson, D. S. Baldwin, and A. M. Mitchell, 2006: Variability in sediment microbial communities in a semipermanent stream: impact of drought. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 25(2), 370-378crossref(new window)

Robertson, G. P., and J. M. Tiedje, 1987: Nitrous oxide sources in aerobic soils: Nitrification, denitrification and other biological processes. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 19(2), 187-193crossref(new window)

Roulet, N. T, R. Ash, and T. R. Moore, 1992: Low boreal wetlands as a source of atmospheric methane. Journal of Geophysical Research 97, 3739-3749

Roulet, N. T., 2000: Peatlands, carbon storage, greenhouse gases, and the kyoto protocol: prospects and significance for Canada. Wetlands 20(4), 605-615crossref(new window)

Saarnio, S., and J. Silvola, 1999: Effects of increased $CO_2$ and N on $CH_4$ efflux from a boreal mire: a growth chamber experiment. Oecologia 119(3), 349-356crossref(new window)

Saarnio, S., T. Saarinen, H. Vasander, and J. Silvola, 2000: A moderate increase in the annual $CH_4$ efflux by raised $CO_2$ or $NH_4NO_3$ supply in a boreal oligotrophic mire. Global Change Biology 6(2), 137-144crossref(new window)

Schreader, C. P., W. R. Rouse, T. J. Griffis, L. D. Boudreau, and P. D. Blanken, 1998: Carbon dioxide fluxes in a northern fen during a hot-dry summer. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 12, 729-740crossref(new window)

Schrope, M. K., J. P. Chanton, L. H. Allen, and J. T. Baker, 1999: Effect of $CO_2$ enrichment and elevated temperature on methane emissions from rice Oryza sativa. Global Change Biology 5, 587-599crossref(new window)

Shurpali, N. J., S. B. Verma, J. Kim, and T. J. Arkebauer, 1995: Carbon dioxide exchange in a peatland ecosystem. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 14319-14326crossref(new window)

Sowerby, A., B. Emmett, C. Beier, A. Tietema, J. Penuelas, M. Estiarte, M. J. M.Van Meeteren, S. Hughes, and C. Freeman, 2005: Microbial community changes in heathland soil communities along a geographical gradient: interaction with climate change manipulations. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37, 1805-1813crossref(new window)

Thormann, M. N., S. E. Bayley, and R. S. Currah, 2004: Microcosm tests of the effects of temperature and microbial species number on the decomposition of Carex aquatilis and Sphagnum fuscum litter from southern boreal peatlands. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 50, 793-802crossref(new window)

Tingey, D. T., E. H. Lee, R. Waschmann, M. G. Johnson, and P. T. Rygiewicz, 2006: Does soil $CO_2$ efflux acclimatize to elevated temperature and $CO_2$ during ong-term treatment of Douglas-fir seedlings? New Phytologist 170, 107-118crossref(new window)

Updegraff, K., S. D. Bridgham, J. Pastor, P. Weishampel, and C. Harth, 2001: Response of $CO_2$ and $CH_4$ emissions from peatlands to warming and water table manipulation. Ecological Applications 11(2), 311-326

Updegraff, K., J. Pastor, S. D. Bridgham, and C. A. Johnston, 1995: Environmental and substrate controls over carbon and nitrogen mineralization in northern wetlands. Ecological Applications 5(1), 151-163crossref(new window)

Waldrop, M. P., and M. K. Firestone, 2004: Altered utilization patterns of young and old soil C by microorganisms caused by temperature shifts and N additions. Biogeochemistry 67, 235-248crossref(new window)

Wang, B., and K. Adachi, 1999: Methane production in a flooded soil in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Biology of Fertile Soils 29, 218-220crossref(new window)

Whiting, G. J., and J. P. Chanton, 1993: Primary production control of methane emission from wetlands. Nature 364, 794-795crossref(new window)

Wiemken, V., E. Laczko, K. Ineichen, and T. Boller, 2001: Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilization on mycorrhizal fine roots and the soil microbial community in Beech-Spruce ecosystems on siliceous and calcareous soil. Microbial Ecology 42(2), 126-135

Yavitt, J. B., and M. Seidman-Zager, 2006: Methanogenic conditions in northern peat soils. Geomicrobiology Journal 23, 119-127crossref(new window)

Zak, D. R., K. S. Pregitzer, J. S. King, and W. E. Holmes, 2000: Elevated atmospheric $CO_2$, fine roots and the response of soil microorganisms: a review and hypothesis. New Phytologist 147(1), 201-222crossref(new window)

Zhang, W., K. M. Parker, Y. Luo, S. Wan, L. L. Wallace, and S. Hu, 2005: Soil microbial responses to experimental warming and clipping in a tallgrass prairie. Global Change Biology 11, 266-277crossref(new window)