한국농림기상학회지, 제 9권 제2호(2007) (pISSN 1229-5671, eISSN 2288-1859)
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 9, No. 2, (2007), pp. 149~160
DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2007.9.2.149
ⓒ Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


몬순기후와 복잡지형의 특성을 갖는 광릉 산림유역의 물과
탄소순환에 대한 교차규모 연구로부터의 교훈

이동호(1), 김 준(1), 김수진(1), 문상기(1), 이재석(2), 임종환(3), 손요환(4), 강신규(5), 김상현(6), 김경하(3), 우남칠(7), 이부용(8), 김 승(9)
(1)연세대학교 대기과학과, (2)건국대학교 생물과학과, (3)국립산림과학원 산림생태과
(4)고려대학교 환경생태공학부, (5)강원대학교 환경과학과, (6)부산대학교 환경공학과
(7)연세대학교 지구시스템과학과, (8)대구가톨릭대학교 환경과학과,
(9)한국건설기술연구원(수자원의지속적확보기술개발사업단)

(2007년 03월 29일 접수; 2007년 06월 11일 수락)

Lessons from Cross-Scale Studies of Water and Carbon Cycles in the
Gwangneung Forest Catchment in a Complex Landscape
of Monsoon Korea

Dongho Lee(1), Joon Kim(1), Su-Jin Kim(1), Sang-Ki Moon(1), Jaeseok Lee(2), Jong-Hwan Lim(3), Yowhan Son(4), Sinkyu Kang(5), Sanghyun Kim(6), Kyongha Kim(3), Namchil Woo(7), Buyong Lee(8),, Sung Kim(9)
(1)Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei Univ., Seoul, 120-749, Korea
(2)Dept. of Biological Sciences, Konkuk Univ., Seoul, 143-701, Korea
(3)Dept. of Forest Environment, Korea Forest Research Institute, Seoul, 130-712, Korea
(4)Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea Univ., Seoul, 136-701, Korea
(5)Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Kangwon National Univ., Chunchon, 200-701, Korea
(6)Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National Univ., Busan, 609-735, Korea
(7)Dept. of Earth System Sciences, Yonsei Univ., Seoul 120-749, Korea,
(8)Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Catholic Univ. of Daegu, Kyeongbuk, 712-702, Korea
(9)Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Sustainable Water Resource Research Center),
Goyang, Kyonggi, 411-712, Korea

(Received March 29, 2007; Accepted June 11, 2007)

ABSTRACT
KoFlux Gwangneung Supersite comprises complex topography and diverse vegetation types (and structures), which necessitate complementary multi-disciplinary measurements to understand energy and matter exchange. Here, we report the results of this ongoing research with special focuses on carbon/water budgets in Gwangneung forest, implications of inter-dependency between water and carbon cycles, and the importance of hydrology in carbon cycling under monsoon climate. Comprehensive biometric and chamber measurements indicated the mean annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of this forest to be ~2.6tCha-1y-1. In conjunction with the tower flux measurement, the preliminary carbon budget suggests the Gwangneung forest to be an important sink for atmospheric CO2. The catchment scale water budget indicated that 30~40% of annual precipitation was apportioned to evapotranspiration (ET). The growing season average of the water use efficiency (WUE), determined from leaf carbon isotope ratios of representative tree species, was about CO2/m mol H2O with noticeable seasonal variations. Such information on ET and WUE can be used to constrain the catchment scale carbon uptake. Inter-annual variations in tree ring growth and soil respiration rates correlated with the magnitude and the pattern of precipitation during the growing season, which requires further investigation of the effect of a monsoon climate on the catchment carbon cycle. Additionally, we examine whether structural and functional units exist in this catchment by characterizing the spatial heterogeneity of the study site, which will provide the linkage between different spatial and temporal scale measurements.

Keyword: Gwangneung forest, Complex terrain, Carbon and water budget, Water use efficiency, Monsoon, Spatial heterogeneity

MAIN

적요

광릉 슈퍼사이트에서 대기와 식생간의 에너지와 물질교환 규명은 지형과 식생의 복잡성으로 인해 많은 기술적인 어려움에 직면하고 있다. 따라서 KoFlux연구에서는 상호보완적인 다중 분야의 연구를 통해 이러한 어려움을 극복하기 위한 시도를 해 오고 있다. 본 논문에서는 현재 진행중인 KoFlux 연구의 예비결과 중 특히 광릉사이트에서의 물/탄소수지, 물과 탄소순환의 상호관련성 그리고 몬순기후하의 생태계에서 탄소순환에 미치는 수문학적 요인의 중요성에대해 중점적으로 논의하고자 한다. 광릉낙엽활엽수림의 순생태생산량 (NEP)은 광범위한 생태학적 연구결과에 따르면 약 ~2.6 t C/ha/y로 예상된다. 이를 미기상 플럭스 관측 결과와 함께 고려할 때 광릉 산림은 탄소의 중요한 육상흡원으로서 기능함을 예상할 수 있다. 다양한 생태수문 관측에 의해 규명된 유역단위 물수지에 의하면 연단위 전체강수량의 약 30-40%가 증발산(ET)에 해당함을 나타내고 있다. 광릉산림의 대표적인 수종인 졸참과 서어나무의 잎에서 얻어진 탄소 안정동위원소 조성에 근거하여 계산된 식물 성장기간의 평균 물이용효율(WUE)은 약 ~12 μmol CO2/mmol H2O에 해당된다. 얻어진 증발산량과 물이용효율은 유역단위의 생태계 생산량을 산출하는데 이용될 수 있다. 나이테 성장량과 토양호흡량의 연단위 변화는 강수량과 강수의 패턴에 의해 크게 영향을 받음을 보이고, 이는 몬순기후에 영향을 받는 동아시아 지역 생태계에서 탄소 순환과정이 수문학적 조건과 밀접한 상관관계를 가짐을 지시한다. 연구지역의 공간적 특성을 정량화하기 위해 관측지의 구조 및 기능적 단위를 규명하기 위한 연구가 진행되고 있고 이를 통해 서로 다른 시공간 규모에서 진행되고 있는 연구의 결과물을 체계적으로 연결 통합하고 나아가 보다 광역적인 규모에서 대표적인 물/탄소 수지를 산출하기 위한 연구가 시도되고 있다.

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